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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
Professor
Saba Safdar
Semester
Fall

Description
Stereotypes – November 15, 2012 Chapter 5&11 Well Known Stereotypes  Why are stereotypes objectionable? o 1. The implicit ethnocentrism  “Americans are ignorant” we are implying that we are smart and know about other places but they don’t know us o 2. The implication that perceived differences are inborn and unalterable Stereotype  Lippman, a political journalist, described stereotype as the pictures in our heads o Came from the printing industry in the way of creating a image from something o He refered to the construct of individual group members that we create in our head How Do Stereotypes Form?  Social categorization – base factor o Grouping people on the basis of gender, ethnicity, and other attributes. o Consequences of categorical thinking is:  Ingroup favouritism  Outgroup homogeneity Social Identity Theory  Social identity is part of an individual’s self concept that is based on the knowledge of one’s group membership and the value and emotional significance attached to that membership  Assumptions of social identity theory: o People categorize the social world into ingroups and outgroups o Part of our self concept is defined in terms of group affiliation o People strive for a positive self concept o People prefer to view members of ingroup positively rather than negatively  Increasing our own self esteem by giving positive evaluation to our own ingroup because it reflects on us. Is Stereotype Inevitable?  Stereotype is an automatic process o Subliminal presentation (Devine, 1989)  Participants came to the lab and were shown images on a screen  Presented so quickly, they could not read the words  Words – ghetto, basketball, welfare, unemployed  They were trying to evoke the stereotype against black Africans  Later shown a image of a black person doing an activity  More likely to say that the actions in the picture were more aggressive if shown those words o Mostly studies focused on white and black African categories o Cultural phenomenon  Controlling automatic activation o Hard to control something you are not aware you are doing o Motivation and devoting cognitive resources could lead to suppression of stereotypes o Bodenhausen’s (1990) experiment  Used peoples 24 hour cycle – Circadian Rhythms  More likely to engage in stereotypes when not at their highest most attentive time of day  Laziness, lean back and crutch on stereotypes Legitimating Beliefs  Stereotypes are often used to justify the in-group’s behaviour towards the out group because: o Stereotypes serve as a way of reflecting social reality o Stereotypes serve as a way of perpetuating of the existing intergroup relationships Expectancies  Holding stereotypes create tendencies to confirm our biases and overlook inconsistent information  Law professor – Columb
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