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Lecture 19

Tuesday, Nov 13/ 2012 - Lecture 19

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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Tuesday, November 13 PSYC 2330 Lecture 19 Q: Delay of reinforcement. Rg Sg Hull, what is the relationship between Rg and Sg? What's the difference of Sg and sg? • Refers to pavlovian conditioning environment • Everything starts with the goal box, which is the stimulus goal • S* = food • The animal is responding to the food • Rg is the goal reaction, which is the rat's reaction to the food (eg. Salivation, chewing, changes in insulin and glucose etc...) ◦ All these behaviours would begin to be conditioned to the goal box ◦ Because they are conditioned responses, they are called r (not R) because the response is to the context, not to the stimulus itself (ie. The food) ◦ Same letter so same response, just not as intense • The conditioned responses obviously will be maximal when the animal is in the goal box • They are also present, however, is in the maze ◦ The animal knows this is the maze where the food is presented ◦ The entire maze becomes a type of conditioned stimulus ◦ When you place the animal in the start box, they have anticipatory goal responses, these are the rg ◦ Think of the response as moving along a gradient which gets more and more intense as the rat approaches closer and closer to the goal box (and, consequently, the food) • These rg will provide drive to the animal ◦ Same idea as knowing you are hungry by hearing your stomach grumbling ◦ The conditioned responses are experienced by the animal, which energizing the animal ◦ When the animal turns right, the response gets stronger ◦ When the animal turns left, the response gets weaker ◦ In this way, the rat is more likely to turn right by following his/her conditioned responses ▪ These are interoceptive and proprioceptive responses Q: In the textbook it talks about Discriminative Stimuli which sets the occasion for a response. Is this the same as the conditioned reinforcer? • Both are valuable because they are paired with the reinforcer • Both become important because they are paired with the reinforcer • Press a button, red light turns on and receive a strawberry ◦ Now there is an operant response (the pressing) ◦ US is the strawberry (reinforcer) ◦ CS is the red light ▪ This can be a stimulus that signals the availability of the strawberry ▪ This can be a stimulus that occurs at the same time or predicts the arrival of the strawberry ◦ If a stimulus increases behaviour, it is a reinforcer • Conditioned stimuli are both discriminative stimuli and conditioned reinforcers ◦ Conditioned reinforcers increase behaviour ◦ Discriminative stimuli indicate that the performance of an operant behaviour will result in the availability of the unconditioned stimulus Q: Premac Principle • Essence of it is that what is reinforcing is access to a behaviour • What is reinforcing is the stimulus • Doing the behaviour has reinforcing properties • In the context of behaviour change in people • Use “I will make you do that” as a reinforcer • eg. If you wear your orthodontic device, you can pick strawberries • If you try to reinforce a preferred behaviour with another behaviour that is also preferred, you may erode the motivation of the first behaviour ◦ eg. if you like to draw and try to reinforce it by offering to pick strawberries after, you may punish drawing behaviour Q: Can you please define multiple schedule, mixed schedule, chained schedule and tandem schedule? • Not on the midterm Q: Passive avoidance task: How do you strengthen the relationship between stepping down and shock using food as a reinforcer after the task? • How do you know that food is reinforcing? ◦ Because it is reinforcing ◦ Circular logic • Hypothesis that food is reinforcing because it enhances memory formation • Situation where the animal is required to learn something and while the animal is still consolidating the memory, I will give them food • They are not responding for food, they are simply being fed when their memory is being consolidated • Makes memory stronger when food is presented immediately after learning • Amount of time spent on the platform is a measure of the strength of the memory for the shock • Rats fed immediately after the experience develop better memory of the shock Q: Can you explain the parado
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