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PSYC 2330 (214)

Thursday, Nov 22/2012 - Lecture 21

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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Thursday, November 22/2012 PSYC 2330 Lecture 21 Declarative Memory System • HM • Surgery-induced lesion • Affected the hippocampus and cortical tissue around it • Had difficulty learning new information • What type of information could HM learn and remember • If you were asking him to remember something declarative, he was 0 in terms of persistence of learning • If you probed material that is learned by repetition or that is stimulus-response, sensorimotor learning, verbal priming, most types of classical conditioning, he was generally normal • Impaired his ability to learn declarative information • Spared his ability to learn procedural information Non-Declarative Memory System • Classical conditioning ◦ Skeletal Musculature ◦ Emotional Responses • Procedural memory (Skills and habits) ◦ ie. motor skills, response skills ◦ Playing music is an example of a skill that requires repeated practise ◦ Habits come along with that ▪ May have habits about how we move around the home ▪ May have habits surrounding how we respond to food etc... ▪ Habits are different from classical conditioning because they are closer related to operant behaviours than to unconditioned responses such as salivation Cognitive Map • Procedural memory was discovered through the study of amnesic patients • Same time was an emerging literature surrounding animal learning of a similar vein • Debate was introduced by Cognitive Psychologists ◦ Is it S-S learning or S-R learning? ◦ “Response” or “Place” strategies ◦ In a T-maze, first train the rat to run to a goal box ◦ Does the rat create a habit of turning right? ▪ S-R ▪ The rat always turns right given the choice ◦ Or does the rat create a mental map of the room and learn where the food is in relationship to the environment ▪ Suggests spatial learning (Aform of S-S learning) ▪ Amap is a general understanding of the relationship between stimuli ▪ Suggests that the rat moves towards the food, not that the rat always responds in certain way ◦ After the animal has learned to run to the goal box, flip the maze around ▪ If the animal turns right, then the animal developed an S-R strategy (habitual strategy) • The reinforcer increases the frequency of responding (ie. Turning right) ▪ If the animal turns left, then the animal developed an S-S strategy (place strategy) • The reinforcer strengthens the memory of where the food is located in the environment ▪ The animal tends to do a bit of both • Which response wins out will depend on which stage of training you're testing • The stage of training is really an indication of how many trials they have done • If you train the animals a little, 85% of the rats will develop place strategies – S-S learning and use of cognitive maps • If the animal is over-trained, rats will develop response strategies – S-R learning • If you continuously train the animal, then they will eventually switch from a controled mode (ie. Where they check their environment) to a habitual mode (ie. Where they initiate the behaviour that is usually reinforced by food, in this case, turning right) ▪ If the animal changes from using one strategy to another, then it suggests that there is an accompanying change in the brain • Shift in which parts of the brain are involved in processing the task Striatum • Striatum is large and is comprised of many different components • The secondary memory system • Regulation of voluntary movements; planning, initiation & learning motor behaviour • Suffers from lack of dopamine in Parkinson's Disease ◦ Selective loss of dopamine cells that send dopamine to this region of the brain ◦ Cannot initiate voluntary movement ◦ Parkinson's Disease sufferers are not paralyzed ◦ The region can be activated from other systems in the brain, but not the traditional pathways ◦ Someone who has parkinson's disease is someone with a damaged striatum, and used for study Experiment • Parkinson's disease red • Amnesic patients in green • Control group in blue • Train to predict the pattern of the weather pattern on the computer based on the cards shown • You can then ask declarative questions about the task ◦ For example, how many shapes were you shown? What colours were used? • Control and Amnesics are able to learn to predict the weather ◦ Parkinson's disease patients do not learn to predict the weather ◦ Parkinson's disease patients can remember doing the task, but don't learn to do it well • Control and Parkinson's disease patients are able to answer declaritive questions about the task ◦ Amnesic patients do not learn the declarative aspects of the task ◦ Amnesic patients learn to do the task, but cannot remember doing it • This experiment shows that memory is not one system, but two • Parkinson's patients also have difficulty with incentive learning, especially as the disease progresses ◦ Some medications can halp reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease, but leads to compulsive gambling, shopping, drug use etc... • Packard and McGaugh (1996) ◦ From place to habit response ◦ Injections of lidocaine into the ▪ a. Hippocampus ▪ b. Striatum ◦ Remember what normal rats will do ▪ Initially, if you train the rats a little bit, most rats will show a place strategy ▪ After two weeks of training, normal rats will switch to a response strategy ◦ Injection of lidocaine after 1 week ▪ Small bar represents animals that were injected in the hippocampus (50%) ▪ Large bar represents animals that were injected in the striatum (87%) ▪ In the first week, lesions to the hippocampus are devastating, but striatum is not necessary ◦ Injection of lidocaine after 2 weeks ▪ In the second week, lesions to the hippocampus do not affect the habitual responding. Lesions to the striatum forces animals to defer to place strategies ▪ Downward black bar represents lesions to the hippocampus (87% habit) ▪ Upward black bar represents lesions to the striatum (
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