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Lecture 1

PSYC 2330 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Clark L. Hull, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2330
Professor
Francesco Leri
Lecture
1

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Principles of learning Jan 9th-13th
Stimulus a detectable change in the internal or external environment
o Processing and response is produced
o Neutral - regular phone, pencil does’t ea aythig –
approach and no withdrawal
o Aversive spider and snake stay away from them produces a
response to get away from it look at the behaviour to know if
its an aversive stimulus
o Incentive produces approach burger
Response observable/measurable *
o See how somebody moves you can observe it how fast you
can run nervous system that controls your muscles
o more movement that goes along with your muscles organs,
glands
behaviour a set of responses of organism, usually in relation to
environmental stimuli
o instinctual genetically programmed behaviours that occurs
when circumstances are appropriate and that require no
learning
o learned behaviours adapted to the environment, relatively
flexible and open to modifications
instinct theories
o Psychological William James 1842-1910 the father of
American psychology
Natural selection
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2
System of instincts could be over ridden by experience
and by each other many instincts in conflct with each
other
Instincts are motive of behaviour impulses coming from
within the organism that leads to the initiation of
behaviour jealousy, aggression
o Biological ethology Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen
Appetitive instincts searching behaviours that are
flexible, adapted to environment, subject to modification
through learning comes before consummatory
consummatory instincts fixed patterns of responsible to
a specific stimulus, rigid, insensitive to the environment,
highly stereotypes and independent from learning
all behaviours need a stimulus and some energy
o stimuli distinction between stimuli that are objects and stimuli
that are social
key stimuli - want it more objects want the bigger ones
social stimulus instinctual recognize facial expressions
you have seen them, people who are blind have the
same facial expressions how you express your emotion
with your face is instinctual
Energy
o Homeostasis the tendency of an organism to maintain an
equilibrium
o Everything adapts everything that goes up must come down
always a balance body is designed to maintain balance
homrones, emotions, learning,
o Body activates systems to go to equilibrium produce a
behaviour to bring the system back to equilibrium
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