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Principles of Learning.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Principles of Learning Chapter 1 Learning theory - learning theory: the field that investigates learning and bheaviour principles by studying animals learning in the lab - launched in 1880s – evolution, human mind had evolved Philosophical roots - rene Descartes: human beings are like machines but only partly so – distinguished mnd and body. Body extension of physical world and mind is spiritual. Mind makes human more than machines - reflex action: a mechanistic principle by Descartes – for ever action in the body there is a stimulus that makes it happen eg, touching fire - mind could modify a reflex - Thomas Hobbes: even mind follows physical laws – all though governed by hedonism: the pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain – reinforcement theory - Julien de la Mettrie: saw similariy between humands and animals (when he had a fever, body affects mind, so can wine) Associatns and the contents of the mind - British empiricst: Lock and Hume: ideas and knwoeledge built up from experience (empiricism) Locke – mind is a blank statew tabula rasa) - Believe mind onlye receives simple sensayions and they cobine to create complex ideas - Hume emphasizes associations between ideas (eg apple – taste sweet) - Contingency – two ideas will become associated if occur closely together in time ALTERNATIVE - rationalism: alternative to empiricism - Immanual Kant- agreed that a lot of knowledge comes from experience but argues that some things exist in the mind before experience (prioris: prior set o assuptopns) - Eg : we know that causality one thing causes another – not from experience - Mind more like a floppy disk (formatted before anything can be written on it - Eg: rats can associate sickness with food but not light (must be something I ate assumtion) Biological Roots - direct impetus to learning theory – biology - neural transmission - Darwin: natural selection. Continuity between humans and animals (struggle for survival) - Evolution – branches of progress - Lloyd Morgan – law of parsimony or morgans Canon: states that an example of behaviour should not be explained by a complex igh level mental process if it can be explained with a simpler one (we should be parsimonious) - Morgan and Thorndlike – interested ins tudying animal learning as a way of udnerstandin their mind - Cat experiment (association between situation and response – gradual learning). Law of effect: when a response is followed by satusfaction (food) an S-R connection is strengthened. When it is followed by discomfort (shock) the S-R association is weakend - Pavlov: reflexes of digestion. Dog salivating experiement – drool to a signal of food conditioned reflex - Bell pairing to food – bell sooon elicited salivation – reflexes of brain - A Science of Learning and Behaviour - structuralism: analyzing the structure of the mind - introspection - negatives: unconscious not told, lying, facts must be falsified - John Watson: psychology became to subjective. Psych should be study of something objective and available to all behaviour. Needs tyo be falsified - Little albert – conditioning experiment. Emotional response fear had been conditioned to the rat (fear = CR, then generalized to other gfurry things – analysis of phobias - “gimme a dozen healthy infants I can make them into anything I want) - Skinner: radical behaviourism: considered reflex. Sensory neuron msut respond to stimulus (S) and fire a motor neuron that excites muscle and makes R – these introduce new questions but does not chnge the relationship between S and R - Environmental events and behaviour - Skinner box: closed rat in small box and gave him a lever to operate. When it was closed another gadget delivered food into a cup. Rat learned to press lever to get food – operant experiment - Rats lever pressing = operant - Food pellet - reinforcer - Shows voluntary action - Operatn response is related to its consequences – lever pressing high if food is there, low if nothing comes - DIFFERENT from classical coniditioning because response is elicited by an antecedent stimulus = respondent. Operative behvaiour caused by consequences, classical conditioning caused by antecedents - If changing consequences changes behavioru = operant - If changes antecedent changes bhaviour = respondent Operational behaviourism: EDWARD TOLMAN: Eg a rat drinking increases if it is deprived of water, fed dry food or injected with salt. So does lever pressing for water - intervening variable or theoretical construct: adding thirst between S and R (adding thirst increasing lever pressing which gives water) Clark Hull - intervening bariables - theory descrtibed a number of theoretical constructs that were carefully anchored on both the antecedent side and consequent side. Interactions also specified - eg Drive and habit - Drive was the motivation caused by biological need (hunger or thirst) most influenced by being deprived of something important - Habit was learning: mostly influenced by the number of times the behaviour had been reinforced - Drive and Habit multiplied too influence performance Chapter 2: Learning and daptation - learnng is mainly a way in which animals adapt to their environments (adapt through experience) evolution and behaviour: natural selection - populations of moths became darker due to pollution and eating light moths - winners are htose who pass their genes alogng to next generation - fitness: animals ability to produce offspring adaptation in behaviour - ethology: behaviours linked to genes. The study of adaptiveness and evolution of behaviour - hard to observe – doesn’t leave fossils - study behaviour of same species evolving - evolution of behaviour related to its survival value or benefit - egg shelel experiment - behavioru adapted to environments fixed action aptterns - fixed behaviour sequences that are triggered by stimuli known as releasers or sign stimuli - have several characteristics (highy stereotyped) - not dependent on learning, appear in typical form when the animal first performs them (built in our genes) - eg cocoon builiding - smiles when happy Innate behaviour - innateness of fixed action patterns is more assumed than proven - used to try to prove with deprivation (deprive from experience) - artifical selection: researchers study whether behaviours can be passed from geeration to generation by allowing animals to only breed if they have a similar specific behaviour - eg bright or dul rats - genetic behaviours interact with specific experiences offered by environments - innate should only be used hwen there is no obvious basis in learning - classical conditioning can evoke innate behaviour by a wider range of stmuli - maturation can alter innate actions too - experience can modify innate behaviours eg habituation: When a sign stimulus is presented repeatedly, the strength of response declines (eg young birds ffrightened by shadow when it flies ocer them but the fear declines with repeated exposure, or loud noises - habituaiton common across species Conditioning with Drug as S*s (bvilogical event) - classical conditioning can readilyu occur with drugs as S*s. any time a drug is ingested, there is an opportunity to associate it with cues (s’s) that are present at the time) - eg djs – mdma - with drug S*s the response to the signal looks veery different that the one elicited by S*, usually the opposite – functions to cancel upcmonign effect of drug - prepares organs for upcoming stimulus - conditioned compensatory response: - decrease of drug feect uis drug tolerance – each time drug is taken it could become more strongly associated with environmental cues - if used in different area – as if taking it gor thr firdt time - eg rats – more sensitive to pain in same environment without drug - tolerance can protect from overdoswe, most people overdose in weird lcotions - response one signals for S*s is not necessarily the same as one observes to S*s Chapter 9 The motivation of instrumental Action - instrumental behaviour is motivated (purpose is to satisfy person) - behaviour is variable (rat might see lever faster one day than the other) - persistence: behaviour keeps going until satisfied - ^ Tolman How motivational states affect behavioru Motivation vs learning - detect specific needs and go satisfy them - homeostasis: the idea is that the body defends an equilibriym and when there is some movement away from it the body goes about correcting for it (eg body depleted from food, find food) - ^Hull - Drive x habit = behavioru strenth - Eg number of reinforcers influenced habit and the amount of food deprivation determine ddrive - Effects of drive on general activity is highly variable – increased activity with food and water deprivation for rats but decreased for hansters – no generalization - Motivaiotnal states select specific sets of behaviours rather than energizing everything blindly - Instrumental action is a simple function of deprivation level - Depend son how the animals knwoeledge of how the reinforcer affects the motivational state (incentive learning: occurd when the animal ingests the reinforcer with in a particular motivational state (eg hungry, rat eats) – it will press lever only when its knowledge says it will make him feel better - Babyr ats need to first consume water and food before thye know what its for - Rate thing especially pleasant in certain motivation states - Hulls thinkinf of motivation and drice – depletgion tepletion theory - Motivated behaviour can be an anticipation of rather than a response to need - Eg drinking rat experiment – high proteing diet needs more water. Starts of eating -> water too eating with water - As cost increases, anials take fewer but bugger meals - Babys take larger meals in anticipation of the fast over night - Need to be taught internal cues of fullness (htose eat less who know when theyr full - Learn aversions to food that make htem sick - Most behaviours anticipate to need Anticipating Reward and Punishment Bait and Switch - rate that went through maze with reward did faster and efficiently - acquired motivation: rewarded motivation to do something, acquired through experience (different than those provided by drives and habits) - monkeys angry when banana switched with lettuce (showed they expected babana) - bigger the reward the fast ertthey perform - negative contrast effect: switching to a smaller quantity fo reeard (easier to obtain, more widely studied) - positive contrast effect: opposite & (elation and depression) - in drinking rat experiment, no evidence of emotionally response but a negative contrast occurred (less licking) and no effect of tranquilizers after first day, but came into effect on the second day The hullian response: incentive motivation - incentive motivation - in addition to behaviour being a function of learning (H) and need (D), also the motivating effect of reward (K) - Behaviour strengthr = DxHxK - Incentive “Pulled behaviour” drive “pushed behaviour” - Depends on animal learning to expect a particular reward (eg banana experiment) - Rg-sg mechanism: rg = goal reaction - Eg . rat may salivate when it eats food, gola reaction becomes associated with stimuli in goal box through classical condiioning so goal box itself with initiate a smaller version of rg (FRACTIONAL ANTICIPATORY GOAL REACTION) - Start box has to be similar to goal box to make generalizations - Stimulus respons sg is salivating - Motivating effects of reward were attributed to a mechanism based on classical conditioning - Phase 1 – allow learning (eg after day 1 of positive contrast, ) - Phase 2 0 bigger Rg Motivation by expectancies - 73-101 - classical conditioning and instrumental elarning reflect similar lesarning processes. In both animals behave as if they have learned to associate events (S’s or Rs’ with S*s . - in instrumental, R occurs in subjects hand, not manipulated by experimenter The basic conditioning experiment Pavlovs experiment - salivatee - object learning is an eg of associativew learning (sand eample, learning to salivate to it) - drooling does nto depend on previous experiments when food is ther US. Food is a US. Drroling is a UR. Bell is a CS. Response to bell is CR - conditioning to one CS could genrralize to other similar CS what is learned conditioning - S-R learning – stimulus creates a response - Stimulus subtitiution theory: pairing two stimulus (US
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