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Lecture 5

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2330
Anneke Olthof

th Week/Lecture 5 Feb 4 , 2013 Predispositions; Determinants of Cr; Conditioning in Humans Biological Predispositions  Inborn predispositions to learn were demonstrated with respect to: 1. Separation in time between CS and US is a critical determinant of conditioning. Learning is unlikely to take place at delays of more than few seconds - Law of association - Best way to condition is to have the CS occurring and overlapping the presence of US o If delay between two, conditioning may possibly not occur at all 2. “Equipotentiality” premise- it does not matter what stimuli are used in conditioning. Any CS will be equally good in all contexts Taste-aversion learning (John Garcia)  Exposed rats to flavoured water and bright-noisy water - Another stimuli was presented while drinking water (noisy= extra stimulation)  Exposed rats to X-rays gastrointestinal disturbance and nausea - Nausea could not be conditioned to a light-noise  Tested drinking of the two waters after x-ray exposure  Control experiment with foot-shock - nor fear could be conditioned to taste - taste-aversion conditioning occurs at delays of over 1 hour Flavor-Illness Associations (Linda Parker)  conditioned taste avoidance - measured by consumption test - appetitive and consummatory - stay away from stimuli  Conditioned disgust - Measured by taste reactivity test - Consummatory - Aversion to stimuli Taste Reactivity- Measure of conditioned taste reactions 1. Flavoured solution is the CS - Sucrose  tongue protrusions 2. Drug treatment is the US, sickness is the UR 3. Pair CS with US 4. Present CS and measure the CR - Sucrose  gapes Drug (US) treatments  Produce conditioned taste avoidance in rats - Emetic Drugs: lithium Chloride, Cyclophosphamide - Drugs of abuse: amphetamine, cocaine, morphine  But, drugs of abuse produce conditioned place preference in rats! - Drugs of abuse do NOT produce conditioned disgust (gapes) in rats - Drugs of abuse do NOT produce conditioned taste avoidance in shrews o Therefore, the physiology of species influence conditioning  Rats cannot vomit, shrews can Preparedness (Martin Seligman)  Animals/humans seem prepared to associate some CS-US combinations more readily than ot
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