Psychology of Learning
Monday February 11
Drug Addiction and Conditioning:
-Direct conditioning and homeostatic conditioning co-occur.
-Direct conditioning is the direct effect of the drug.
-Homeostatic conditioning is the bodies response to the drug.
-Major problem with addiction is relapse.
-Two sub components.
-Think of it in terms of CS-US.
-The drug is the US.
-A-process is the primary effect of the drug.
-B-process is the secondary effect of the drug.
-Can condition either a-process or b-process. Can pick and choose.
-When drug is metabolized you go into withdrawal.
-You can condition a state where the individual is experiencing acute effects of a drug (a-process) or you
can condition a state of withdrawal (b-process).
Dr.Shirley Spragg in Chimpanzees:
-Would take chimps to a specific room and then they would inject them with morphine. Done a number
of times. After enough trials, the chimp would give the arm and watch the injection. After even more
trials, the chimp would pull the experimenter towards the room where the injections occur. If you let
them run around freely, they will run directly to the injection room.
-Example of conditioned place preference. The chimps prefer the place where the injection is given.
-In humans, “needle freaks” are a generation of intravenous drug users.Amphetamine was the primary
drug of choice for injection. Produces compulsive patterns of injections (sometimes 5 or 6 times per
day). Keep trying to find places on the body to inject (conditioning occurs during a-process).
-Some individuals may be given water and in a syringe and they will still inject, even when they know it
is water. They may derive pleasure from the injection itself.
-If you take an environment and pair it with heroin or morphine, and pair another environment with
nothing, the animal will avoid the latter because it is associated with withdrawal.
-Goldber and Schuster (conditioning occurs during b-process):
>Very easy to cause withdrawal from an opiate.
>Use an antagonist to take out morphine from brain, and causes almost instantaneous morphine.
Extremely unpleasant and noticeable.
>The more dependent you are the less