Class Notes (811,170)
Canada (494,539)
Psychology (3,830)
PSYC 2330 (214)

PSYC 2330 Lecture October 17th

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

October 17 Contiguity Theory (Edwin R. Guthrie) -operant conditioning occurs when S, R and S* occur together in time • the extreme of automatic behavior -Guthrie made the point that a stimulus and response will be associated with each other as long as they happen together in time -stop-action principle: any specific bodily position and the muscle movements occurring when the S* is delivered will have a higher probability of occurring in the future • superstitious behaviors • look at Raphael Nadal: before he serves the ball he takes about 40 seconds because he lifts his socks and pulls the back and front of his pants, touches his ears, etc. Cognitive Theory (Edward Tolman) -We agree with the other school that the rat in running a maze is exposed to stimuli and is finally led as a result of these stimuli to the responses which actually occur. We feel, however, that the intervening brain processes are more complicated [and] more autonomous than do the stimulus-response psychologists. -during operant conditioning, animals make S-S* associations -Rs are highly flexible and the primary role of a S* is to motivate behavior Reinforcement Theory (B.F. Skinner) -reinforcing stimulus an event that enhances the storage of information about situations in which it is • encountered - “stamping in” • focuses on what the reinforcer is doing (in this case, enhances memory information) this enhanced storage increases the probability that the behavior leading to the • reinforcer will be repeated in the future even in the absence of the reinforcer -positive means giving a stimulus, negative means taking away • when you present a stimulus and behavior increases, this is positive reinforcement when you present a stimulus and behavior decreases, this is positive punishment • • when you remove a stimulus and behavior increases, this is negative reinforcement • when you remove a stimulus and behavior decreases, this is negative punishment Why is reinforcement reinforcing? -responses usually continue in the absence of a reinforcer for quite some time -a reinforcer is an event that follows a response and changes the probability that the response will be emitted in the future -How can an event change the behavior when the new behavior occurs in the absence of the event? • enhancement of memory consolidation: reinforcing events enhance the acquisition and the storage of information in the brain • basically, they enhance memory • attribution of conditioned motivation: learning is the formation of representations of the relationships among objects and events • a representation of a reinforcer will motivate behavior • attribute motivational value to stimuli -if the memory trace is followed by a reinforcer, it will enhance the stability of the memory trace -also, the reinforcer that has motivational value, will attribute motivational stimuli to the responses using classical conditioning -as you do something in your life, this will be represented in your brain but is fragile and can be modified with time, the representation will become more stable and less vulnerable to • motivation • mem
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2330

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.