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Lecture 4

Principles of Learning Lecture 4.doc

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PSYC 2330

Principles of Learning – Lecture 4 Continue Drive Theory - Drive is a general pool of energy that can activate innate & learned behaviours (generalized drive) - There are several sources of drive, but drive itself is nonspecific & nondirective. - Full of energy & noises in your stomach  if you know what you’re doing you will respond with previous habits, if not, you will respond with general activity & learn to reduce the drive  Look up in textbook Incentive Motivation - Hull eventually realized that the characteristic of the goal objective influence the motivation of the organism. K = incentive vale of the goal object sEr = sHr x D x K - The value of K is learned, the value of K is relative - Timing food-resticted rats; how fast they run towards food for 20 trials - Rats running for 256 pellets run faster & faster (learn more) - Rats running for 16 pellets run less fast - Rats running for 1 pellet run the same speed - Now they change it so all of the rats run for 16 - #1: run much slower (highly impacted; much less motivated – because of their experience, K is smaller) - #2: run slightly slower - #3: run much faster (high motivation – K is larger for them) - If you’re satiated, you won’t eat a food even if you really like it. (ex. thanksgiving, you can’t eat anymore turkey, but if they bring out dessert – a new flavour – your incentive value rises & you will eat it).  Incentive Learning (Tony Dickinson & Bernard Balleine)  Incentive Relativity (L.P. Crespi)  Central Motive State (Datbir Bindra) - Behaviour is a product of incentive value (K) & learning (sHr) – lecture picture.  Energy might not come from your body naturally running out of nutrients; a drive could result from a stimulus – such as someone placing a food you like in front of you & causing you to eat it. Challenges Optimal level of motivation? - Yerkes-Dodson Law: there is an inverse relationship between task difficulty & optimum motivation. That is, with simple problems, increasing motivation enhances learning, but on more dif
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