Principles of Learning – Lecture 4
Continue Drive Theory
- Drive is a general pool of energy that can activate innate & learned behaviours
- There are several sources of drive, but drive itself is nonspecific & nondirective.
- Full of energy & noises in your stomach if you know what you’re doing you will
respond with previous habits, if not, you will respond with general activity & learn to
reduce the drive
Look up in textbook
- Hull eventually realized that the characteristic of the goal objective influence the
motivation of the organism.
K = incentive vale of the goal object sEr = sHr x D x K
- The value of K is learned, the value of K is relative
- Timing food-resticted rats; how fast they run towards food for 20 trials
- Rats running for 256 pellets run faster & faster (learn more)
- Rats running for 16 pellets run less fast
- Rats running for 1 pellet run the same speed
- Now they change it so all of the rats run for 16
- #1: run much slower (highly impacted; much less motivated – because of their
experience, K is smaller)
- #2: run slightly slower
- #3: run much faster (high motivation – K is larger for them)
- If you’re satiated, you won’t eat a food even if you really like it. (ex. thanksgiving, you
can’t eat anymore turkey, but if they bring out dessert – a new flavour – your incentive
value rises & you will eat it).
Incentive Learning (Tony Dickinson & Bernard Balleine)
Incentive Relativity (L.P. Crespi)
Central Motive State (Datbir Bindra)
- Behaviour is a product of incentive value (K) & learning (sHr) – lecture picture.
Energy might not come from your body naturally running out of nutrients; a drive
could result from a stimulus – such as someone placing a food you like in front of you &
causing you to eat it.
Optimal level of motivation?
- Yerkes-Dodson Law: there is an inverse relationship between task difficulty & optimum
motivation. That is, with simple problems, increasing motivation enhances learning, but
on more dif