There is a movement towards the expected unconditioned stimulus (hand out to get the altoid) He says he gets a bad taste when he hears the sound. If the us (altoid) produces freshness (ur), now the cs (tone) produces bad taste, the opposite of freshness. It s not true that the cr is always mimicking the ur, sometimes it s completely opposite. How can you predict what your cr will be? which part of the ur will it mimic. The cr will mimic the ur is the ur is monophasic (no b-process) Monophasic = only one dimension e. g. eye blinking. The cr will be opposite to the ur if the ur is biphasic (b-process) Heart-rate ur to shock is biphasic cr = decrease in hr. Eye ur to puff of air is monophasic cr = ur. Locomotor ur to shock is biphasic cr = freezing. Locomotor ur to morphine is biphasic cr = increase in locomotion.