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Lecture 11

PSYC 2330 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Edward C. Tolman, Operant Conditioning Chamber, Glanville Williams

Course Code
PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

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Tuesday, Feb 28, 2012
PSYC*2330 Lecture 11
- Law of Effect
- Reinforcement Theories
- Effect of reinforcers on memory consolidation
- Effect of reinforcers on conditioned motivation
Operant Conditioning (S-R Learning)
- 3 important elements stimulus, response and biologically significant stimulus
- many stimuli such as lighters, pack
- also contextual stimulus such as a smoking booth
- what is the operant/instrument in smoking? the cigarette
- what is the biological stimulus? the nicotine
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Reinforcing Stimuli
Primary Reinforcers
- stimuli that are not learned (primary) - true unconditioned stimuli
- stimuli needed for survival = food, water, sex
- stimuli that mimic the effect of food, water and sex in the brain = drugs
- sensory stimulation and novelty
Secondary Reinforcers or Conditioned Reinforcers
- A previous neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity of strengthen responses
because it has been repeatedly paired with food or with some other primary reinforcer
- Join B. Wolfe 1936 - CHimpanzees pressing a lever for tokens
Social Reinforcers
- Stimuli whose reinforcing properties derive uniquely from the behaviour of other
members of the same species: praise, affection, attention. They are usually a blend of
primary and secondary reinforcers (smile & good)
- usually related to the species
Conditioned Reinforcers and Shaping
- Skinner Box
- Shaping - a process that involves the use of conditioned reinforcers
- cannot make an animal produce a random response unless you first establish a
- first establish a classical conditioning relationship between chime and food, then when
the dog faces the door turn on the chime (conditioned reinforcer) and food, as they get
closer and closer to the door keep turning the chime on, then attack the chime to the
door and when they open the door, they hear the chime
- delay is critical here between performance response and the reinforcer
- if you just give them the food they will not pay attention to their surroundings, you have
to associate the conditioned reinforcer (chime) and the primary reinforcer (food) to the
- there has to be a very short time between the response and the reinforcing stimulus
(bell goes off when open door, intravenous drug effect happen instantaneously)
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