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Lecture 16

PSYC*2330 Lecture 16.pdf

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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Thursday March 15 2012PSYC2330 Lecture 16 Week 8Negative Reinforcement and Punishmentnegative reinforcement is not intrinsic in the stimulusif you talk about positive reinforcement as giving candy you have a problem explaining negative reinforcement would it be bad candy noAvoidance Learningnegative reinforcementremoval of an aversiveescape and avoidanceAvoidance Paradoxrat in cage tone for 10 seconds then shock animal not happy this is bad tone again gets scared shock and then the animal jumps to the other side and everything stops called Escape Response eg running away from a bearAvoidant Responseas soon as the tone comes on the rat jumps to the other side and avoids it all togetherescape is when they experience shock and run away from the shockif they avoid the shock all together its avoidancethe paradox is that you get an animal jumping from side to side for months never receiving a foot shock when the animal is well trained he never experienced the shock because they avoid it by jumping from side to side you could turn off the foot shockits a paradox because it keeps happening and you dont know why it keeps happeningthe biological stimulus is not presented but the behaviour continuersparadox is the animal keeps jumping after the US is removedtake away the US and behaviour increasesnegative reinforcementTwoFactor TheoryOHobart MowrereFactor 1Pavlovian Fear ConditioningShock USFear URTone CSShock USTone CSFear CRFactor 2Reinforcement through fear reductionTone CSFear CRAvoidance responsetermination of tone CSreduction of fear CRnegative reinforcementwhere the animal produces the responseby turning off the tone the animal turns off the fear which reinforces behaviourwhen the animal makes the response they eliminate fearavoidance is in the basis of phobias and substance dependence
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