PSYC*2330 Lecture 16.pdf

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23 Mar 2012

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Thursday, March 15, 2012
PSYC*2330 Lecture 16 Week 8 - Negative Reinforcement
and Punishment
- negative reinforcement is not intrinsic in the stimulus
- if you talk about positive reinforcement as giving candy you have a problem explaining
negative reinforcement, would it be bad candy? no
Avoidance Learning
- negative reinforcement = removal of an aversive
- escape and avoidance
Avoidance Paradox
- rat in cage, tone for 10 seconds then shock, animal not happy this is bad, tone again,
gets scared, shock, and then the animal jumps to the other side and everything stops
called Escape Response e.g. running away from a bear
- Avoidant Response - as soon as the tone comes on the rat jumps to the other side and
avoids it all together
- escape is when they experience shock and run away from the shock
- if they avoid the shock all together itʼs avoidance
- the paradox is that you get an animal jumping from side to side for months never
receiving a foot shock, when the animal is well trained he never experienced the shock
because they avoid it by jumping from side to side, you could turn off the foot shock
- itʼs a paradox because it keeps happening and you donʼt know why it keeps happening
- the biological stimulus is not presented but the behaviour continuers
- paradox is the animal keeps jumping after the US is removed
- take away the US and behaviour increases = negative reinforcement
Two-Factor Theory
O. Hobart Mowrere
Factor 1 - Pavlovian Fear Conditioning
Shock (US) ----> Fear (UR)
Tone (CS) - Shock (US)
Tone (CS) -----> Fear (CR)
Factor 2 - Reinforcement through fear reduction
Tone (CS) ----> Fear (CR)
Avoidance response ----> termination of tone (CS) = reduction of fear (CR)
- negative reinforcement
- where the animal produces the response - by turning off the tone, the animal turns off
the fear which reinforces behaviour
- when the animal makes the response they eliminate fear
- avoidance is in the basis of phobias and substance dependence
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