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Lecture 4

PSYC 2330 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Gastrointestinal Disease, Conditioned Taste Aversion, Radiography

Course Code
PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

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PSYCH 2330 Exam Review
Lecture 4
Biological predispositions
Inborn predispositions to learn were demonstrated with respect to:
1. The separation in time between the CS and US is a critical determinant of conditioning.
Learning is unlikely to take place at delays of more than few seconds.
2. Equipotentialitypremise - it dose not matter what stimuli are used in conditioning. Any
CS will be equally good in all contexts.
Pavlov: Any natural phenomenon chosen at will may be converted into a CS....any
visual stimulus, any desired sound, any odor, and the stimulation of any part of the
Taste-aversion learning (John Garcia)
1. Exposed rats to flavored water and bright-noisy water
2. Exposed rats to X-rays gastrointestinal disturbance + nausea
3. Tested drinking of the two waters after x-ray exposure
4. Control experiment with foot-shock !
Nausea could not be conditioned to light-noise, nor fear could be conditioned to a taste
Taste-aversion conditioning occurs at delays of over 1 hour !
Flavor-Illness Associations (Linda Parker)
Conditioned taste avoidance
Measured by consumption test
Appetitive and consummatory
Conditioned disgust (Gaping)
Measured by taste reactivity test
Taste reactivity test – measures conditioned disgust
1. Flavoured solution = CS
Sucrose -> tongue protrusions
2. Drug = US
Sickness = UR
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3. Pair CS with US
4. Present CS and measure the CR Sucrose -> “gapes”
Drugs (US)
That produce conditioned taste avoidance in rats are:
1. Emetic drugs - Lithium Chloride; Cyclophosphamide
2. Drugs of abuse - Amphetamine; Cocaine; Morphine
But, drugs of abuse produce conditioned place preference in rats.
Drugs of abuse do NOT produce conditioned disgust (gapes) in rats
Drugs of abuse do NOT produce conditioned taste avoidance in shrews
Preparedness (Martin Seligman)
Animals/humans seem prepared to associate some CS-US combinations more readily
than others.
Such preparedness is defined by the amount of inputs (# of trials) that are necessary to
develop a reliable output (responses).
Prepared associations : Taste aversion
Unprepared associations : Light and food
Counter-prepared associations : Pigs of Breland & Breland (1966) “Instinctive drift”
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