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Lecture 2

Tuesday, Sept 11/2012 - Lecture 2 Notes.doc

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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Lecture 1 Notes PSYC 2330: Principles of Learning September 11 The school of thought known as behaviourism argued that real progress in the field of psychology would occur if psychologists would limit their study to: Directly observable and measurable verbal and motor behaviours that could be independently verified Dog Juno will be visiting semi regularly to help teach about learning and conditioning Today: Instinct theories Homeostasis and Drive Hull's drive theory Goal-directed behaviour Goal directed indicates that the organism is obtaining something desirable as a result of the behaviour Instinctual behaviours are Genetically programmed behaviours that occurs when circumstances are appropriate and that require no learning Learned behaviours are adapted to the environment and relatively flexible and open to modifications o If the behaviour is unsuccessful it can be changed to something that causes the desired outcome Most behaviour is a blend of instinct and learning Food, water and sedate naturally occurring drives What makes an instinctual behaviour occur? Instinct Theories Psychological (William James) Instincts are motivators of behaviour. They are impulses coming from within the organism that lead to the initiation of behaviour (Modesty, jealousy, shyness, curiosity) Are all motivators equal? Do different motivators propel us forward differently? There are many more motivators than the four listed by William James Motivation is like the energy that initiates behaviour Ethology Instincts and Behaviours - They exist because they have, or had,survival value. They are controlled by genes, andtherefor not learned. However, instinctive behaviours differ in terms of degree of sensitivity to changes in the environment. Appetitive: Searching behaviours that are flexible, adapted to the environment, and subject to modification through learning. o Set of behaviours the animal knows to perform but that is modifiable based on the situation Consummatory: Fixed patterns of responding to specific stimuli. These behaviours are rig
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