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Lecture 4

Lecture 4- September 18th.doc

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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

habituation: response goes down sensitization: response goes up habituation regular basis: - outside in the cold, don’t feel it anymore, - traffic noise - turn lights up, - heat and pressure of shoes: get used to it this is learning because your response changes drugs: tolerance video: sensitization - kazoo- dog became more and more responsive to the annoying kazoo. got more and more sensitive to it - people talking behind you in lecture, tapping your chair. Gets more and more annoying until you want to punch them exposed to stimulus over and over until your response changes lion may get habituated to you petting it, but not habituated to not biting your arm off. sensitization and habituation are very basic forms of learning. Kandel did studies on slugs. Aplysia slugs: has a very simple nervous system the nervous system is capable of learning displays sensitization processing cells in brain are neurons neurons always look like this axon attaches to other cells. synaptic cleft Neurotransmitters (nt) cross the synaptic cleft. chemical communication vesicles have nt in them action potential comes down, activates calcium channels calcium helps the docking of the vesicles. need calcium to release nt. (exocytosis) Ca needs to be at the presynaptic terminal to release calcium is regulated by things in the cell- including action potential channel is responsive to the environment and learning gill- breathe, delicate slugs will protect it poke them, withdrawal the gill if keep poking, the withdrawal will be less- habituation. doesn’t redraw the gill anymore or ver slowly siphon has a sensory neuron very simple nervous system- the learning can only happen at one neuron no change in sensory, but the response at the motor neuron is different. so something changes at the motor neuron--- the amount of the nt released is different how do you know the slug is learning?- behaviour changes depletion of synaptic vesicles getting tired almost inactivated calcium channel ca channel changes shape., thus calcium cannot go through anymore habituation/sensitization reversible? - habituation, yesss - sensitization, more complex response which isn’t reversed easily sensitization: can change the emotional tone of the stimulus - sensitized at the synapse. cocaine- become more sensitive in response to more cocaine shock tail of snail--> - touch gill after- withdrawal is faster * emotional tone was raised. response is amplified traumatic event- for days after you are shaking and jumpy to everyday things (attacked by an animal, almost hit by a bus etc) shock to tail releases serotonin. elevates the response threshold of the slug facilitatory interneuron facilitates the effect . facilitatory interneuron synapses on the motor neuron. serotonin is a neuromodulator that changes the way you respond to a stimulus serotonin- facilitates learning, one shock -
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