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Lecture 6

Lecture 6- September 25th.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

September 25th, 2012 · The essence of classical conditioning is the subject is looking in the environment for the presence and the absence of unconditioned stimuli · We seek predictors for things like food, water, sex etc. · We seek these US because we are biologically programmed to want these things · We look for the presence and absence of these things because it is important to us if we get these things and important to us if we don’t Contingency: · Something being a predictor of something else · The CS must be a good predictor of the US · Not only because it occurs in conjunction with the US · Ex. O= CS, I= US · O I O I I O à random · OI OI OI à perfect predictor · O I O I OI à partial predictor · You could say that contingency is the essence of classical conditioning · Contingency can be calculated as a difference between two probabilities · 1. Probability that a US will occur in the presence of the CS (good) ex. The food occurs in the presence of the bell (it’s a good predictor) =p (US / CS) · 2. Probability that a US will occur in the absence of the CS =p (US / no CS) · Phi=p(US / CS) – p(US/ no CS) value is between 0 and 1 · Random à Phi= 0 · Perfect predictor à Phi= 1 · **question that will be on the exam about contingency ( THE ANSWER IS A) · Positive contingency: US is more probable when the CS is on (you get it) · Negative contingency: US is less probably when the CS is on (you don’t) · Ex. Rats are conditioned to jump back and forth between a wall. The positive group is conditioned that when a tone is sound they’ll get a shock (when they hear the tone they jump faster) the negative group is conditioned that when the tone sounds there WON’T be a shock ( when they hear the tone they jump slower because they know they’re safe) the random group is not really conditioned at all because there is no contingency between the shock and the tone (when they hear the tone they don’t do anything because they aren’t conditioned to know that the tone means anything) Surprisingness of the US: · Ex. Every time you come into the classroom there is an ice cream sundae waiting for you. You’re excited and your response would be to look for predictors. If this happens day after day you’ll be less surprised by it. You won’t ask how it got there anymore. · When something meaningful that you don’t expect occurs you’ll look for predictors as to why it happens · And when something meaningful that you expect to be there isn’t there you’ll want to know why ·
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