Class Notes (834,037)
Canada (508,290)
Psychology (3,977)
PSYC 2330 (214)
Lecture 14

Thursday, Oct 25/2012 - Lecture 14

4 Pages
113 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2330
Professor
Francesco Leri
Semester
Fall

Description
Thursday, October 25 PSYC 2330 Lecture 13 If a stimulus is making a behaviour more frequent then it is a reinforcer. Reward is an emotion, it is, for example, how food feels. Areinforcer is not necessarily rewarding and a reward is not necessarily a reinforcer. When you have reinforced a behaviour effectively, then when the stimulus is presented, the response occurs. In the example with the son going into the barber, the horse ride is a reward not a reinforcement. Contiguity Theory • Operant conditioning occurs when S, R and S* occur together in time. • Stop-action principle ◦ Any specific bodily position and the muscle movements occurring when the S* is delivered will have a higher probability of occuring in the future. ◦ Superstitious behaviours ◦ Theorized that there is no cognitive link made, but that the responses are merely habitual. ▪ For example, wearing the same pants to all one's exams even though there is no real reason for the pants to increase exam performance ◦ Not all operant conditioning leads to habitual conditioning (responding) • Cognitive Theory ◦ We agree with the other school that rat in running a maze is exposed to stimuli and is finally led as a result of these stimuli to the responses which actually occur. We feel, however, that the intervening brain processes are more complicated [and] more autonomous that do the stimulus-response psychologists. ◦ During operant conditioning, animals make S-S* associations. Rs are highly flexible, and the primary role of a S* is to motivate behaviour. ◦ Present the monkey with a food object, then cover it, pull down a screen to create a delay between when the monkey saw the food and when they are allowed to retrieve it. ▪ Switching the banana with lettuce during the delay produces anger in the animal, offering evidence that animals do think and feel ▪ Animals generate expectations about what they anticipate to be coming next Reinforcement Theory • Reinforcing Stimulus:An event that enhances the storage of information about situations in which it is encountered - “Stamping in” ◦ This enhanced storage increases the probability that the behaviour leading to the reinforcer will be repeated in the future, even in the absence of the reinforcer ◦ The reinforcer allows the organism to develop a bond between a stimulus and event ◦ Arguing that reinforcers act on memory ▪ This is obvious because if you remove the sugar from the sugar dispenser without the animal knowing, they will still attempt to use the sugar dispenser ◦ Presentation of stimulus and behaviour increases = positive reinforcement ◦ Removal of stimulus and behaviour increases = negative reinforcement ◦ Presentation of stimulus and behaviour decreases = positive punishment (Also called punishment) ◦ Removal of stimulus and behaviour decreases = Negative punishment (Also called omission) Why is a Reinfocer Reinforcing? • Areinforcer is an event that follows a response and changes the probability that the response will be emitted in the future • How can an event change behaviour when the new behaviour occurs in the absence of the event? • Enhancement of memory consolidation ◦ Reinforcing events enhance the acquisition and the storage of information in the brain • Attribution of conditioned motivation ◦ Learning is the formation of representations of the relationships among objects and events. Arepresentation of a reinforcer will motivate behaviour. ◦ Provide a motivational context for your behaviour Reinforcer graphic on Courselink Ehancement of Memory Consolidation • As you form a new memory, as the memory is being newly introduced in your brain, it is fragile and non-permanent • As you process your memory, it can be changed • If you do nothing, it takes time to transform the memory from fragile to permane
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2330

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit