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Lecture 14

Thursday, Oct 25/2012 - Lecture 14

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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Thursday, October 25 PSYC 2330 Lecture 13 If a stimulus is making a behaviour more frequent then it is a reinforcer. Reward is an emotion, it is, for example, how food feels. Areinforcer is not necessarily rewarding and a reward is not necessarily a reinforcer. When you have reinforced a behaviour effectively, then when the stimulus is presented, the response occurs. In the example with the son going into the barber, the horse ride is a reward not a reinforcement. Contiguity Theory • Operant conditioning occurs when S, R and S* occur together in time. • Stop-action principle ◦ Any specific bodily position and the muscle movements occurring when the S* is delivered will have a higher probability of occuring in the future. ◦ Superstitious behaviours ◦ Theorized that there is no cognitive link made, but that the responses are merely habitual. ▪ For example, wearing the same pants to all one's exams even though there is no real reason for the pants to increase exam performance ◦ Not all operant conditioning leads to habitual conditioning (responding) • Cognitive Theory ◦ We agree with the other school that rat in running a maze is exposed to stimuli and is finally led as a result of these stimuli to the responses which actually occur. We feel, however, that the intervening brain processes are more complicated [and] more autonomous that do the stimulus-response psychologists. ◦ During operant conditioning, animals make S-S* associations. Rs are highly flexible, and the primary role of a S* is to motivate behaviour. ◦ Present the monkey with a food object, then cover it, pull down a screen to create a delay between when the monkey saw the food and when they are allowed to retrieve it. ▪ Switching the banana with lettuce during the delay produces anger in the animal, offering evidence that animals do think and feel ▪ Animals generate expectations about what they anticipate to be coming next Reinforcement Theory • Reinforcing Stimulus:An event that enhances the storage of information about situations in which it is encountered - “Stamping in” ◦ This enhanced storage increases the probability that the behaviour leading to the reinforcer will be repeated in the future, even in the absence of the reinforcer ◦ The reinforcer allows the organism to develop a bond between a stimulus and event ◦ Arguing that reinforcers act on memory ▪ This is obvious because if you remove the sugar from the sugar dispenser without the animal knowing, they will still attempt to use the sugar dispenser ◦ Presentation of stimulus and behaviour increases = positive reinforcement ◦ Removal of stimulus and behaviour increases = negative reinforcement ◦ Presentation of stimulus and behaviour decreases = positive punishment (Also called punishment) ◦ Removal of stimulus and behaviour decreases = Negative punishment (Also called omission) Why is a Reinfocer Reinforcing? • Areinforcer is an event that follows a response and changes the probability that the response will be emitted in the future • How can an event change behaviour when the new behaviour occurs in the absence of the event? • Enhancement of memory consolidation ◦ Reinforcing events enhance the acquisition and the storage of information in the brain • Attribution of conditioned motivation ◦ Learning is the formation of representations of the relationships among objects and events. Arepresentation of a reinforcer will motivate behaviour. ◦ Provide a motivational context for your behaviour Reinforcer graphic on Courselink Ehancement of Memory Consolidation • As you form a new memory, as the memory is being newly introduced in your brain, it is fragile and non-permanent • As you process your memory, it can be changed • If you do nothing, it takes time to transform the memory from fragile to permane
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