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Lecture 15

Tuesday, Oct 30/2012 - Lecture 15
Tuesday, Oct 30/2012 - Lecture 15

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Tuesday, October 30 2012 PSYC 2330 Lecture 14 Conditioned Motivation • Stimuli without motivational value that are present when a stimuli that is motivationally important is presented acquire motivational value • Reinforcer causes a neutral stimulus to become a salient stimulus (ie.Astimulus that elicits emotion and behaviour) • Motivation is the combination of behaviour and emotion • Behaviour – approaching vs.Avoiding (Wanting vs. Not wanting) Measure of Liking • Taste like and dislike • Common facial reaction to liked and disliked tastes across humans, primates and rats • Facial reactions have been taken to indicate liking or disliking • How do you measure wanting? ◦ Approach behaviour ◦ If you eat a food, you must want it ◦ If you do not eat a food, you must not want it • These two components often go together, but are actually different. Often food that produces liking responses also produces wanting behaviour • Critical characterisitic of addiction is the desire to stop drugs, but they continue to use those substances ◦ Individuals will say they don't like the drugs that they don't enjoy using them but are nevertheless incapable of stopping Dopamine and Wanting...But not liking! • 6-Hydroxydopamine lesions to the VTA produced severe aphagia • Produces specific dopaminergic lesions • If you make large bilateral lesions of this kind you get an animal that will not eat, not drink, not have sex and will not initiate motivational behaviour • Goal-oriented behaviour almost completely disappears • Aphagia – they don't eat • They can move. • It's not that they are incapable of eating, it is that they are not motivated to approach the food • The dopamine system is responsible for controlling the motivational behaviour (but not liking response) However • If you place something sweet in their mouth, they show the same liking reactions • If you place bitter food in their mouth, they show the same disgust reactions • Rats showed the normal hedonic reactions to food placed in their mouth/on the tongue • There are different areas of the brain that process the hedonic value of the stimuli and separate areas of the brain that process the motivational value of the stimuli • Regions that are involved in liking overlap with regions involve in motivated behaivour but rely on the endorphin class of neurotransmitters rather than the dopamine class Positive Reinforcement • Presentation of a stimulus which increases the frequency of the behaviour • Positive does not refer to whether you like it or not Effectiveness of Reinforcement • Drive • Incentive value of S* ◦ If you've just consumed your favourite food, it is unlikely that presenting you with your favourite food will be as motivating than if you haven't had it for a long time • Delay of reinforcement ◦ Delay between CS and US does not facilitate learning ◦ The more the delay the less the learning • Stimulus control • Schedule of reinforcement Delay of Reinforcement • Stimuli in the start box and delay box come to elicit the goal response • Food (stimulus = goal stimulus = sG) • RG = goal response (any reactions in the goal box) • goal response = fractionaly anticipatory goal responses ◦ 1. Energizes behaviour ◦ 2. Fractional goal response (rG) -------> goal stimulus (sG) ◦ 3. Goal stimulus (sG) guide behaviour • Goal stimulus (sG) can also serve as conditioned reinforcers because of their contiguous association with goal stimulus (sG) (i.e. The S*) • The animal is using Pavolovian cues as reinforcers ◦ These pavlovian clues can fill the gap of time and still allow the animal to make the link between the operation and the reinforcer • Conditio
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