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Lecture 16

Thursday, Nov 1/2012 - Lecture 16

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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Thursday, November 1 2012 PSYC 2330 Lecture 16 Which of the following schedules results in a conditioned or primary reinforcer after every target behaviour? a. FI b. VI c. FR d. VR e. CRF MyAnswer: e (CRF) -> Correct! Reinforcement Schedules • Intermission can be in terms of responses (number of responses determines when the reinforcer will be delivered) or in intervals (where the passage of time determines when the reinforcer will be delivered) • Fixed schedules result in behaviour that alternates • First recorded on a rolling paper with an arm that records the cummulative responding Other Schedules • Not typically discussed in textbooks • Progressive ratio and break-point ◦ Number of responses required increases exponentially during the schedule ◦ At some point the animal will quit and will not invest that level of effort to obtain the reinforcer ◦ The point at which the animal will stop responding for the reinforcer is called the break point ◦ Animals that have been deprived will invest more effort into getting food than animals who have not been deprived (ie. The break point will be higher) ◦ Progressive ratio doesn't measure reinforcability, but rather the intensity of the salience of the reinforcer • Second-order schedule – a “schedule of schedules” using conditioned reinforcers ◦ The animal is facing the lever and there are two forces of reinforcement for lever pressing a primary reinforcer (eg. Sucrose) and then a secondary reinforcer (eg. Light) ◦ What reinforces behaviour is a combination of the two reinforcers on two different schedules ◦ Creates very strong reinforced behaviour for a low amount of primary reinforcer (ie. food) ◦ In order to use the schedule of schedules you need to first condition the secondary reinforcer to the primary reinforcer • Continuous Schedules ◦ Strong preference for reinforced responses ◦ Costly & work-intensive ◦ Does not encourage persistent behaviour ▪ Very simple to extinguish behaviour that has been acquired and maintained on a continuous reinforcement schedule • Partial Schedules ◦ VR higher rates of responding than VI ◦ VI more steady responding when reinforcement is infrequent ◦ Encourage persistent behaviour ◦ Partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) • The goal of all behavioural training is permanent behavioural change without the presence of reinforcers Extinction • Removal of a stimulus that was used to promote and maintain behaviour • Negative means removing the stimulus • Punishment means that the behaviour is decreasing • Other terms for negative punishment are omission and extinction • Extinction reduces behaviour • Extinction is not unlearning, it is learning something new • Extinction produces emotion ◦ Extinction itself is a source of emotion to the animal Extinction • Intravenous heroin self-administration • Large increase of responding on the first few days of extinction which is a paradoxical reward effect • Paradoxical because you have observed a higher level of responding in the absence of the reinforcer than when the reinforcer was present Extinction Frustration • 1. Frustration can energize behaviour • Frustration Reactions (R F • Partial reinforcement extinction effect ◦ On non-reinforced trials, the animals experience some frustration (rF) which has stimulus effect (sF). SF is eventually reinforced. The animal, therefore, is reinforced for responding during the experience of frustration ◦ Emotions are also behaviours of themselves that can be reinforced just like other behaviours • 2. Demotivate, and elicits competing behaviours ◦ Magnitude of reinforcement extinction effect ▪ Behaviour reinforced by large rewards extinguishes faster ▪ If behaviour was reinforced by very salient stimuli, when extinction is begun you experience immediate and complete demotivation and cease behaviour most quickly ◦ Overlearning extinction effect ▪ Behaviour extensively reinforced can extinguish faster ◦ Competing behaviours are behaviours like chewing the box and lever ▪ Can also include frustration and aggression • Trained rats to run through an alley, receiving food at two locations – one in goal box 1 and one in goal box 2 ◦ After rats were well trained, the first reinforcer was removed ◦ When the reinforcer was removed, the rats ran faster • On a partial reinforcement schedule, you are not only reinforcing the behaviour but also the emotion of frustration (and thus responding in the presence of frustration) ◦ Therefor when you remove the reinforcer, the organism will be more likely to respond despite frustration • Frustration is one dimension that energizes behaviour, but aggression also energizes behaviour • Extinction can cause aggression as well as frustration • Experiment with humans ◦ Pressed the button and after a certain number of button presses to get tokens ◦ An irritating noise played in the background and the participants could stop the noise either by pressing a button or by slapping a cushion with a stick ◦ In the condition with reinforcement, the button was used the most often ◦ In the extinction condition, the stick was most used to stop the noise Behavioural Modification • Application of principles of reinforcement to practical problems of human behaviour • Student who are severely disruptive in class (ie. Robbie) • Once a behaviour has been acquired it can be maintained by the positive changes that occur in the individual student's life and experiences Sports • Behavioural coaching ◦ Looks at each portion of the movement ◦ Work through the first movement to the last movement and give feedback after each component of the behaviour ◦ Constant feedback
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