Behaviour Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology
The study of the power and limits of genetic and environmental influences
Studies individual differences due to genetic differences
Genes can be active (expressed), or inactive.
Environmental events can turn genes on which enables the gene to provide
the code to make certain proteins
Genotype: Genes. 22 pairs of autosomes that are the same in males
and females with one pair (XX, XY) differing for sex
Phenotype: Observable characteristics
96% of our genetic sequence is shared with chimpanzees
Geneticists are interested in the small variations between sequences that
result in the diversity of each human
FOXP2: Transcription factor that regulates gene expression during brain
development, especially in motor control centres.
Neanderthals had FOXP2 that was the same as in humans
In songbirds, FOXP2 is associated with song learning
KE disorder: Mutation of FOXP2 which affects speech, mouth control
Identical Twins: Develop from a single (monozygotic) egg that splits
They are genetically identical.
While they have the same genes, they may not have the same number
of copies of these genes
Some twins are in separate placentas as well which can account for
Fraternal Twins: Develop from separate (dizygotic) eggs.
Genetic risks and associations are studied in detail regarding twins Separated Twins: Twins separated at birth, with the same genes, but
raised in different environments.
Subject of many studied regarding heredity vs. environmental
Studies of separated twins have shown remarkably similar life choices
Separated fraternal twins are less similar then separated identical twins
Researchers study whether adopted children become more like their
biological parents (genetics) or more like their environmenta