Attachment and Developmental Psychology
Examines physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span,
focussing on :
Nature vs. Nurture: How our genetic inheritance interacts with our
experiences to influence development
Continuity and Stages: What parts of our development are gradual and
which change abruptly in separate stages
Stability and Change: How we change as we age and which of our traits
Continuity and Stages:
Piaget's stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor stage,
preoperational stage, concrete operational, formal operational
Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development: Basic trust,
autonomy, initiative, competence, identity, intimacy, generativity, integrity
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development: Preconventional
morality, conventional morality, post conventional morality.
Stability and Change:
-Temperament is a very stable characteristic.
-Traits, such as social attitude, are much less stable then traits such as
-Everyone changes with age, with some changes occurring without changing
a person's position relative to others of the same age.
Zygotes: Fertilized Eggs
Embryo: Inner cells of zygote once zygote attached to uterine walls
Placenta: Outer cells of zygote and becomes link to transfer nutrients
and oxygen to embryo
Fetus: Nine week after conception, embryo becomes fetus During the sixth month, organs begin to develop that would allow a fetus
chance to survive if prematurely born.
-Learning of language begins in the womb
Teratogens: Substances such as Virus and drug agents that can
damage the fetus.
Fetal alcohol syndrome: Small, disproportioned head and lifelong
brain abnormalities. This occurs because alcohol has an epigenetic
effect which is the chemical mark on DNA that can switch genes
abnormally off and on.
-Newborns have automatic reflex responses
Habituation: A decrease in responding with repeated stimulation as it
Within days after birth, a babies neural network is stamped with their
Cognition: All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,
remembering and communicating.
Piaget's Core Idea: Drive behind intellectual progression is the
struggle to make sense of experiences. Maturing brain builds schemes
(concept or framework to organize and interpr