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PSYC 2450
Jennifer Mc Taggart

PSYC*2450 Chapter Eleven: Text Notes Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood FOCUS Buffy Sainte-Marie -Ph. D in Fine Art, and degrees in Philosophy and Education -1960s, became popular singer/song writer of folk & protest music -1969, established Nihewan Foundation, educational foundation dedicated to Aboriginal children to prepare them for success in school, and to promote a more accurate understanding of Aboriginal peoples internationally and in their own communities. -Also branched off of the foundation with the Cradleboard Teaching Project. This project is dedicated to developing teaching materials on North American Aboriginal Cultures. -1993, established a Juno award category for Aboriginal Canadian music. -Wanted to clear up the misconceptions non-Aboriginal people had of cultures and traditions of Aboriginal peoples throughout North America. THE D EVELOPING SELF The Self-concept and Cognitive Development -Self-concept is our sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of ones abilities. A cognitive construction, which determines how we feel about ourselves, and guides our actions. -Comes into focus in toddlerhood, as self-awareness is developed. -Becomes clearer and more compelling as a person gains in cognitive abilities and deals with the developmental tasks of childhood, of adolescence, and then of adulthood. Changes in Self-Definition: The 5 to 7 Shift -Changes in self-definition reflect self-concept development. -Occurs between the ages of 5-7. -Self-definition is the way children describe themselves. -Neo-Piagetian analysis describes this shift in 3 steps. 1. Single Representations: -Age 4 -Describe self in terms of individual, unconnected characteristics. Describe self in all or nothing terms. -Cannot imagine having two emotions at once. -Cannot acknowledge that his real self is different from his ideal self. 2. Representational Mappings: -Age 5 or 6 -Begin to link one aspect of ones self to another. -Logical connections between parts of ones image. -Still all or nothing terms. 3. Representational Systems: -Age 7 (or middle childhood) -Integrate specific features of the self into a general, multi- dimensional concept. -Self-descriptions are now more balanced. Cultural Differences in Self-Definition -Parents transmit cultural ideas and beliefs about how to define the self. -Different cultures encourage different view of the self. (Interdependent and independent) -STUDY- -180 European American and Chinese preschoolers, kindergarteners, and second graders. -As early as age 3 or 4, children differing cultural styles of self- definition. -European American children -personal attributes I am big. -personality traits & tendencies I am good at sports. -positive light I am smart. -Chinese children -social categories I have a sister. -specific, overt behaviours I play tag with my friends. -describe themselves neutrally I forget my manners. Self-Esteem -The evaluative part of the self-concept. -The judgment children make about their overall self-worth. -Based on childrens growing cognitive ability to describe and define themselves. Developmental Changes in Self-Esteem -Age 8, can articulate a concept of self worth. (But are able to show it through actions prior to this age.) -STUDY- -In Belgium (Verschueren, Buyck, & Marcoen, 2001) -Measured self-perceptions of 5-year-olds. (Physical Appearance, Scholastic and Athletic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Behaviour Conduct) -Used puppets to reveal childrens perceptions of what other people think of them. -Positive or negative self-perceptions at age 5 tended to continue to age 8. -Tend to accept the judgment of adults, and may overrate their abilities. Contingent Self-Esteem: The Helpless Pattern -High self-esteem = a child who is motivated to achieve. -Attribute failure to factors outside themselves, or they feel they need to try harder. -Tend to have parents who give specific, focused feedback. (Look, the tag on your shirt is showing! instead of When are you going to learn to dress yourself?!) -Self-esteem which is contingent on success = a helpless child. -View failure or criticism as an indictment of their worth. They may stop trying all together since they feel unable to do better. -They become demoralized when they fail. -Attribute poor performance or social rejection to their own personality deficiencies, which they feel they cannot change. Understanding and Regulating Emotions -Develops during preschool years. -The ability to understand and regulate ones feelings is one of the key advances of early childhood. -Help children guide their behaviour. -Contributes to their ability to get along with others. -STUDY- -Lagattuta, 2005 -32 4-8 year olds, 32 adults. -How would a young boy feel if his ball rolled into the street and he retrieved it or failed to retrieve it? -4 & 5 Year olds thought he would be happy if he got it back, even though he broke the rules. -Older children & adults thought the boy would obedience of the rules would make him feel good, and disobedience of the rules would make him feel bad. Understanding Conflicting Emotions -They do not understand that they can experience contradictory emotions and/or reactions simultaneously. -STUDY- -J. R. Brown & Dunn, 1996 -3-year-olds who could identify whether a face looked happy or sad or could tell whether a puppet was enacting a situation involving happiness, sadness, anger, or fear, were better able at the end of kindergarten to explain a story characters conflicting emotions. -They came from families who often discuss why people behave they way that they do. Understanding Emotions Directed Towards the Self -Shame and pride develop at age 3, after children gain self-awareness. -Depend on the internalization of parental standards of behaviour. -STUDY- -Harter, 1993 -Stealing or Performing well. (Seen or unseen) -4-5 years old -Didnt mention pride or shame -Thought parents would be worried or scared (stealing) -Thought parents would be happy or excited (performing) -6-7 years old -Parents would be ashamed or proud. -Didnt acknowledge pride or shame of themselves. -Would only be proud or ashamed if someone saw them. -7-8 years old -Even if no one saw them, would be proud or ashamed of themselves. Cultural Influences on Emotional Regulation -Cultural influences the socialization of emotional expression though interaction with caregivers. -STUDY- -Cole et al. 2002 -Villages in Nepal. Brahmans - high-caste Hindus. Tamang, Buddhist minority. -Both highly value social harmony. -Brahman caregivers ignore a childs expression of shame, because of their high-status cultural view. They deal openly and sympathetically with anger, encouraging control. -Tamang caregivers reprimand anger, but use nurturance and reason to deal with shame. -Spilling on homework example. (Controlled anger, or shame of leaving homework near the drink) Erikson: Initiative versus Guilt -The conflict arises from the growing sense of purpose, which lets a child plan and carry out activities, and the growing pangs of conscience the child may have about such plans. -Split between two parts of the personality: -The part that remains a child, full of exuberance and a desire to try new things. -The part that is becoming an adult, constantly examining the propriety of motives and actions. -Learning how to regulate these develops the virtue of purpose. -If the crisis is not resolved, a child may turn into an adult who is -Constantly striving for success and showing off -Inhibited and unspontaneous or self-righteous and intolerant -Suffers from impotence or psychosomatic illness
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