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PSYC 2450 Lecture Notes - Social Emotions, 18 Months, Reinforcement

Course Code
PSYC 2450

of 5
Chapter 12
Emotional expressions are adaptive
First expressions to appear are:
Disgust (as in response to bitter tastes)
Distress (in response to pain)
Rudimentary smile (unrelated to external events)
True social smiling appears between 4-6 weeks
primary emotions
emerge 2-7 months
anger, sadness, joy, surprise, fear
secondary emotions
in second year
embarrassment, shame, guilt, envy, pride
self-conscious emotions
Gender differences in infants’ emotional expressiveness:
Boys display more positive and negative emotions in response to stimuli than girls
Contradictory to adults, why?
Girls encouraged to express emotions
Boys taught to suppress emotions
Learning how to regulate emotions:
Strategies for emotional control change with age (eg: coping with arousing situations):
6 months: look away, become fussy
18 months: self-soothing, self-distraction
Toddlers: emotional outbursts become less frequent, less intense, and more
Learning how to regulate emotions:
emotional display rules
learning what emotions to show under what circumstances
Show happiness after opening an unwanted gift
Hide laughter when it is inappropriate to laugh
Recognizing emotions in others:
Infants recognize positive emotions earlier than negative emotions
Easier to produce emotional expression than interpret the expression of another
Producing emotional expressions may be genetically determined
an individual’s tendency to respond to environmental events in predictable ways
activity level: what they’ve been doing that day
irritability: how tired they are
soothability : are they easy to calm down
fearfulness: do they frighten easily
sociability : do they make friends easily
stability of temperament:
moderately stable through childhood:
activity level, irritability, sociability
Thomas & Chess: three profiles
easy: 62% of children
open and adaptable to new experiences
difficult: 15%
react negatively to new experiences and slow to adapt
slow-to-warm-up: 23%
mildly resistant to new situations and slow to adapt
emotional attachments are
strong affectionate ties we feel for special people in our lives
reciprocal relationship between infant and parent
synchronized routines
phases of infant attachment development:
asocial phase (0 to 6 weeks)
indiscriminate attachments (6 weeks to 6/7 months)
specific attachments (7-9 months)
multiple attachments (by 18 months)
is feeding the cause of attachment
psychoanalytic theorists
oral gratification
learning theorists
food is primary reinforcer
mother becomes secondary reinforcer
Harlow & Zimmerman (1959) tested feeding hypothesis
rhesus monkeys reared with surrogate “mothers”
made of wire; one covered with soft and other just wire
½ monkeys fed by wire surrogate, ½ fed by cloth surrogate
Harlow & Zimmerman (1959) tested feeding hypothesis