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Chapter 12.docx

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PSYC 2450

Chapter 12 • Newborns: – Emotional expressions are adaptive – First expressions to appear are: • Startle • Disgust (as in response to bitter tastes) • Distress (in response to pain) • Rudimentary smile (unrelated to external events) True social smiling appears between 4-6 weeks • primary emotions – emerge 2-7 months – anger, sadness, joy, surprise, fear • secondary emotions – in second year – embarrassment, shame, guilt, envy, pride – self-conscious emotions • Gender differences in infants’ emotional expressiveness: – Boys display more positive and negative emotions in response to stimuli than girls – Contradictory to adults, why? • Girls encouraged to express emotions • Boys taught to suppress emotions • Learning how to regulate emotions: – Strategies for emotional control change with age (eg: coping with arousing situations): • 6 months: look away, become fussy • 18 months: self-soothing, self-distraction • Toddlers: emotional outbursts become less frequent, less intense, and more conventionalized • Learning how to regulate emotions: – emotional display rules • learning what emotions to show under what circumstances • eg: • Show happiness after opening an unwanted gift • Hide laughter when it is inappropriate to laugh • Recognizing emotions in others: – Infants recognize positive emotions earlier than negative emotions • adaptive – Easier to produce emotional expression than interpret the expression of another • Producing emotional expressions may be genetically determined • temperament: – an individual’s tendency to respond to environmental events in predictable ways – includes: • activity level: what they’ve been doing that day • irritability: how tired they are • soothability : are they easy to calm down • fearfulness: do they frighten easily • sociability : do they make friends easily • stability of temperament: – moderately stable through childhood: • activity level, irritability, sociability • Thomas & Chess: three pr
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