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Chapter 14.docx

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PSYC 2450

Chapter 14 Gender differences: • Sex – A person’s biological identity – Chromosomes, physical identity, and hormones • Gender – A person’s social and cultural identity • gender role standards – behaviour, value, or motive a society considers more appropriate for a specific sex • expressive role • instrumental role • gender typing – process by which children acquire gender roles • small but reliable psychological differences between sexes – verbal ability – visual/spatial abilities – mathematical ability – aggression • overt versus covert • Other possible sex differences – Activity level – Fear, timidity and risk-taking – Developmental vulnerability – Emotional expressivity/sensitivity – compliance • Cultural myths – Sociability, suggestibility – Differences in logical and analytical ability • Influence of culture: – impact of expectations on ability and vocational opportunities • self-fulfilling prophecy • parental expectations • teachers’ expectations • three aspects of gender typing: – gender identity – gender role stereotypes – gender-typed behaviour • steps in gender identity development – discriminate males from females – labeling males and females – sex as permanent attribute • development of gender-role stereotypes – stereotyping evident at ages 2-3 years – psychological discrimination later – ages 3-7 strict conformists to stereotypes – gender intensification in adolescence • development of gender-typed behaviour – gender segregation • play style / activity level – girls and cross-sex activities in childhood – adolescent gender inte
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