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PSYC2650 Lab notes 1.docx

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PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

PSYC2650 – Lab Notes LAB 1 – Word Superiority Effect Perception – visual perception; process of encoding, organizing, and interpreting info that enters the cognitive system through the senses; result = inner representation of stimulus - Context plays important role in visual perception - Context effects in visual pattern recognition sometimes used to illustrate top-down processing – already stored mentally influences what we “see”/how we interpret; info coming into system influenced by what we already know/expectations - Context effects also found in word recognition i.e. can read scribbled writing because of surrounding letters that give clues to identity of scribbled letters Superiority effect – reveals importance of context in letter recognition; recognition of letter character is facilitated when that character is part of a word (vs. letter in isolation) o Bottom-up info enters visual system + perceive basic shapes of letters word info already stored in mind then “comes down” to reinforce recognition of letters in words  Letters that appeared in words actually receive more activation than letters in isolation letter in context of word = more accurately recognized and remembered - Most people show a facilitative effect of the complete word in recognizing individual letters of that word Bottom-up processing – belief that our pattern recognition system is only dependent on amount of info coming in visually to recognize letters, words, or patterns o Only raw sensory info is needed to match what we see to a representation stored in memory o If were wholly true, individual letters should be recognized better and faster than words with multiple letters - Reading paper forward = meaning of sentences may influence expectations about which word comes next increases likelihood that you will “see” what you expect to see = miss misspelled word Phonemic restoration effect – context effect found in hearing; people tend to fill in missing phonemic info with sound to make word consistent with meaning in rest of sentence LAB 2 – Spatial Cueing Spotlight metaphor – theory that claims our visual attention is like a spotlight directed at a spatial lo
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