PSYC 2650 Lecture Notes - Frontal Lobe, Encoding Specificity Principle, Endel Tulving

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29 Jan 2013

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PSYC2650 Lab notes
LAB 4 Encoding Specificity
Context reinstatement often useful in remembering; important in encoding and retrieving info
- (Tulving and Thomson) experiment demonstrates way in which info is encoded greatly influences
retrieval of the info context = words as word pairs
Encoding specificity principle predicts that info can only be retrieved when it is encoded in
memory + retrieving info depends on manner in which info is encoded
retrieval cue in learning stage (i.e. word pair chair-table “chair” = strong retrieval
cue for “table”) + encoding of the 2 words (“chair” and “table”) together during
learning phase improves memory during test phase
words from strongly associated word pairs in input stage (i.e. wasp-sting) best
recognized when in company of same strongly associated word in recognition stage
better than when target word (wasp) paired with another highly associated
word (bee) that had not been seen in encoding phase
words from weakly associated word pairs lead to better memory for one of the
words in pair than does a strongly associated cue not encoded originally
i.e. pool-ravine pool = better memory cue for ravine than abyss
match between encoding context and retrieval context facilitate memory for target
- “filler” trials = new words and associations presented used in memory experiments to prevent
response bias from subject
Mood-congruency effect (Bower) being in same mood at encoding and retrieval = better memory
o People better at remembering happy events from diaries while in a happy mood, and sad
events when in a sad mood
memory best when match between encoding and remembering phases
- “contexts” effects = physical setting in which one learns and recalls info (Godden and Baddeley)
scuba divers encode/retrieve words on land and water
o When context for learning and recalling are same = recall more words
o No context effect for recognition of words (only retrieval)
LAB 5 (Fan Effect)
Fan effect shows that knowing a lot about a specific subject does not necessarily mean that you will be
able to retrieve info about the topic more quickly
o Tendency to take longer to retrieve info about facts/concepts that have more info/relational
links (as in domains in which a person has more expertise)
o i.e. easiest sentences to judge as true/false were about a person who had been at only 1
location or about single location with only 1 person shorter reaction/response time
reason reaction time longer for sentences with people/locations with more info =
associative network depict concept nodes and relations among them
o found with retrieval of real-world knowledge, face recognition, and alpha-numerical facts
may not be as prevalent when retrieving real-life info domains usually have >1 or
2 relations to other concepts (large sets of interrelated knowledge)
retrieval could be faster in multiple-fact cases cumulative activations
o used to study effects of aging, working memory capacity, and frontal lobe damage
- node in network activated by question = related concepts linked to it also activated
o assumption of limited total amount of activation = concepts with multiple links have
activation divided among the related concepts less activation per link
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