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PSYC 2650
Anneke Olthof

Difficulties categorizing via resemblance concepts as theories knowledge Network Difficulties with Categorizing Via Resemblance recall that with both prototype and exemplar theory, judgments about category membership should be based on the resemblance between the test case and the prototype or exemplar Thus, with both prototypes and exemplars, judgements of category membership and judgements of However, sometimes typicality and category membership dissociate! e.g., Moby dick was not a typical whale, we still categorize him as a whale. Another example of category membership NOT based on typicality Armstrong et al. (1983) found that participants rated some odd numbers as being better examples than others, even though they also consider all odd numbers to fit this well- defined category. Some case that do NOT have typical features ARE accepted as category members: e.g., a lemon that is painted with re and white stripes, injected with sugar to make it sweet, and then run over with a truck, is still a lemon Other cases HAVE all the typical features but are NOT accepted as category members: e.g., a perfect counterfeit bill All examples suggest that some categories are reasoned about in terms of essential properties and not superficial attributes e.g., the abused lemon still has lemon DNA; it still has seeds that would grow into a lemon tree. But how do we decide which features to consider and which ones to ignore? Concepts as Theories So far we have argues that categorization is based on comparing the resemblance of superficial features of the test case to a prototype and/or exemplar. This accounts for typicality effects and graded category membership May be an example of heuristic - a strategy that is reasonable efficient and works most of the time but can occasionally lead to errors. However, we’ve seen that judgments of resemblance depend on other knowledge, such as which attributes are important and which are not. May require more holistic approach that involves a deeper understand of related concepts this is known as the concept-as-theory view - helps us figure out which features are superficial and which are essential Fo
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