Friday, February 6, 2015
Lecture: Episodic Memory
-our memory for episodes, graphical events, what happens to you. (you have to have
encoding information for those speciﬁc episodes.
-what are the factors that affect whether something becomes stored in LTM?
*elaboration (instead of repeating the words again and again, you are ﬁnding the
meanings by elaborating) - mneconic (connections)
*Intention (intending to want to learn about something and remember)
-quality (not just quantity) of practice is important for memory encoding (amount of
meaning and connections) yes you can rehearse it as much as you want as well but it
will only slightly increase.
-- involves embellishing a to be remembered item with additional information
task: remember simple sentences
two study conditions
-elaborative: generate an elaboration
-control: just read and study the sentence
Memory Test: complete the rest of the sentence
-> easier to recall when you elaborate and enhance context.
Conclusion: recall of the elaboration may lead to recall of the word when the word could
other wise not be recalled
-Meaningful (deep) processing of to‐be‐ remembered information leads to better
memory (than shallow processing)
task: read pairs of words
semantic relations - tulip ﬂower (easier to remember when they are related
because they make connections with easier recall)
rhyme relations ﬂower - tower
Friday, February 6, 2015
task: do these compliments reﬂect oneself (deep processing, thinking about your
is there an e in these words? (shallow processing because not much thought)
-intuition about intention (predict that it is going to mean that you are likely to
-ex: task condition - list of 24 words, pleasantness of the word (deep) or is there
a certain letter in the words? (shallow)
two learning conditions
intentional: you will be given a memory test (easier to recall what letters were in
incidental: naive about memory test
*they both had the same pleasantness of the word.
although, intention tells us that it does not matter in this case but that the type of
while intention has a positive effect, it is indirect, where there is intention there is
more likely to have elaboration because you need to make connections about
what you are learning!
-when memory frustrates us - why can’t i remember stuff?
-is it that the memory has lost or erased it? - is it in there but we just can’t
Memories forgotten but not lost. (due to forgetting not losing!)
ex: studied 20 noun pairs, let two weeks past, have a memory test.
free recall: cue to recall the remaining.