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Lecture 8

Tuesday, Oct 2/2012 - Lecture 8

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Tuesday, October 1 2012 PSYC 2650 Lecture 8 Exam • Chapters 1,2,3,4,5 (Only 1st section on working memory) • All lectures so far including today • 35 multiple choice • 2 short answer questions ◦ Roughly a paragraph's worth of information ◦ Point form is acceptable • Know the agnosias and what capgras syndrome is • Chapter 3 – do not need to know the models of recognition • Check the exam preperation list, that is where the information is that is covered in lecture 2 ShortAnswer Questions • 1. Related to Lab 3 -> Serial Position Effect ◦ Discussed well in chapter 5 ◦ Read the text in order to properly answer this question • 2. Methods -> Cognitive Neuropsychology ◦ Study of brain damage ◦ Example of face recognition and prosopagnosia ◦ What makes this method unique from other methods that psychologists use ◦ Double association -> know what this definition means Are Short Term memory and Working Memory interchangeable? • There will never be an exam situations where one answer is short term and one is working and one is correct and the other isn't • Short term memory refers to time, and distinguished from long-term memory • Working memory is a bigger concept, it better captures how we use short term memory ◦ when using working memory we are relying on a short term buffer • Both discussing the fact that we can hold a small amount of information in memory for a short term Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory • STM: Mental “disk space” (RAM) ◦ Immediately available ◦ Limited capacity ◦ Cache??? • LTM: Mental “reference library” (Hard Drive) • Example of Short Term Memory: ◦ Carrying out a conversation, the person you're speaking with dominates the conversation ◦ Says one, two or three things ◦ You have responses to those things ◦ But you have to store them until you have an opportunity to object Modal Model • Came out in the late 60's, early 70's when cognitive psychology was beginning to mature • This model appeared in scientific american, a traditionally invitation only forum. Very prestigious to have your results appreciated by ScientificAmerican • Words Primary and Secondary are terms used by William James but are now called Short-term and Long-term • In order for items to stay in short term memory, they must be maintained through rehearsal • In the above example, you may have to actively rehearse your objective while listening to the rest of the conversation • Phone numbers used to have to be memorized, and often the most common way to remember is to repeat that number over and over again to maintain it in short term memory • The act of rehearsal can also lead to long term storage of that information • Maintenance rehearsal completes two goals ◦ Keeps informatin in short term memory ◦ Transfers the information to long term memory • Without the maintenance of this information, the information is lost from both Short term memory and Long term memory • This ressembles in many ways how things work, but it has some shortcomings as well Role of STM in LTM formation • Rehearse contents of short term memory • The more rehearsal done, the more likely information is to be transfered to long term memory ◦ We have found that the way you study is also important • If the item has left short term memory before the transfer to long term memory, it would be lost • Short term memory can't hold items for very long because new items competing for limited capacity Critics of the Modal Model • One criticism is related to the law of parsimmony ◦ Questioned the distinction between short term memory and long term memory ◦ Asimpler explanation is not that there are two memories, but only one memory ◦ The storage would then be a scale of quality ◦ Low quality memories would appear to be short term because they are not remembered for the same amount of time ◦ High quality memories are stored forever • Highly unique or emotional moments are stored in long term memory for a very long time without short term memory rehearsal ◦ No effort in this case to remember ◦ Rehearsal is therefor only required for long term memory formation in certain situations • Does not capture everything we do with our short term memory buffer Primacy and Recency Effects • Lab 3 • Experiment: given a list of words to remember. In different conditions you would have different list lengths ◦ The longer the list is, the more difficult it is to remember ◦ In longer lists, accuracy will be below 100% ◦ The inaccuracies are systematic, but not in an obvious way • Common result patterns: ◦ Primacy effect: subjects are likely to remember the first few words on the list ▪ More likely to remember the first few words on the list of a long list ◦ Recency effect: subjects are likely to remember the last few words on the list ▪ More likely to remember the last few words on the list • Capacity of working memory is about 7 items • Our results were the correct U-shaped function that we expected, showing both a primacy and recency effects • Serial Position Curve measures recall accuracy as a function of word position in a list • Why does serial position have such a profound influence on memory performance? ◦ Recency effect is related to short term memory because the last few items on the list are still active in short term memory ◦ Primacy effect is related to long term memory, the first few items underwent the most rehearsal and were thus transferred to long term memory ◦ These two effects show that short term memory and long term memory are separate ◦ In terms of rehearsal, the first few items are the most priveleged and were transferred to long term memory • Long term memory can be a permanent storage but can also decay over time • According to these findings, the recency effect is due to short term memory and the primacy effect is due to long term memory • The act of throwing an item out of short term memory to make room for other items takes effort in and of itself • Short term memory is related to the recence portion of Se
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