Class Notes (784,513)
Canada (481,196)
Psychology (3,762)
PSYC 2650 (166)
Lecture

Ch 2.docx

14 Pages
89 Views
Unlock Document

School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2650
Professor
Karl Hennig
Semester
Fall

Description
Cog Ch2 - The Neural Basis for Cognition For Exam 1 Chapter 2: 25-30; 33-36; 51-52 pg 25 -cognitive psychologists rely on multiple findings: response times, error rates, and questionnaire responses. -No one source of data more important than others; all contribute to fabric of evidence that allows us to test our theories. -reliance on many pieces of evidence and diverse pieces of evidence, important aspect of research on cognition; -crucial for the "inference to best explanation" that is at the methodological core of our field. -One form of evidence, need s its own presentation: -evidence concerning brain functioning that makes cognition possible. -begin w/ ex involving some bizarre symptoms that can result from brain damage; -use ex to illustrate what we can learn about the mind by studying brain, and learn about the brain by studying the mind. -Ex will, highlight fact: each part of the brain has its own specialized function, - Behaviors, thoughts, and feelings almost invariably depend on coordinated action of many regions. -to consider some basic brain anatomy, and examine some of metostudy functioning of brain's various parts. -will inspect the tissue altosee, understand, visual world that surrounds us. Pg 26 Capgras Syndrome: An Initial Example -human brain extraordinarily complex organ which the functioning of the whole dependent on many interconnected systems. -damage virtually anywhere produce specific-and sometimes highly disruptive- symptoms. -symptoms often tragic for afflicted persons and families, but can be source of insight into how brain functions. -Consider disordCapgras syndrome -disorder rare on its own, but seems to be one of accompaniments to Alzheimer's syndrome, -sometimes observed among the elderly -disorder can result from various injuries to brain -Someone w/ Capgras syndrome fully able to recognize people in their world- husband/wife , parents, friends-but -utterly convinced these people not who they appear to be. - the afflicted person insists the real individual , has been kidnapped (or worse). -person now on scene, isn't the genuine article; instead, must be a well-trained, well-disguised impostor. -Imagine living with this disorder. -turn to someone you know extremely well- say, "You look x, sound like x, and act like x, But I can tell that you're not x. WHO ARE YOU?" -Often a person w/ Capgras insists slight differences btwn impostor and person theyve replaced- -subtle changes in personality or tiny changes in appearance. -no one else detects these (nonexistent) differences, compounding bewilderment experienced by Capgras sufferer. -feelings spiral upward, w/ patient developing paranoid suspicions about why a loved one has been replaced and no one seems to acknowledge replacement. -extreme cases Capgras sufferer may be led to desperate steps, in some instances murdering supposed impostor in an attempt to end the charade and relocate "genuine" character. -one case, Capgras patient convinced his father had been replaced by robot , decapitated him in order to look for batteries and microfilm in his head -What is going on here? - answer, according to some lies in fact = facial recognition involves two separate systems in brain -one leads to cognitive appraisal ("I know what my father looks like, and I can perceive that you closely resemble him") -other to more global, somewhat emotional appraisal ("You look familiar to me, also trigger warm response in me"). -concordance of two appraisals leads to the certainty of recognition ("You obviously are my father"). -Capgras syndrome, the latter (emotional) processing disrupted, leading to intellectual identification w/o familiarity response -"You resemble my father but trigger no sense of familiarity, so you must be someone else:' Pg 27 The Neural Basis for Capgras Syndrome - crucial step examining hypothesis about Capgras syndrome = examine brains of people w/ disorder. -examination is made possible by neuroimaging techniques, -allow researchers to take high-quality, three-dimensional "pictures" of living brains, w/o disturbing the brains' owners. -what do techniques tell us about Capgras syndrome -One form comes from PET scans - tell great deal about the structure of brain-incld abnormalities in brain tissue -PET scans suggest link between Capgras syndrome and abnormalities in several brain areas -One site of damage = temporal lobe, particularly on right side of the head. -damage probably disrupts circuits involving amygdala, which -seems to serve as "emotional evaluator;' helping organism detect stimuli associated w/ threat or danger. - amygdala important for detecting positive stimuli- indicators of safety or available rewards. - Seems likely amygdala, "evaluator;' essential for making judgment of "you look familiar to me and trigger a warm emotional feeling" -one half of our two-systems hypothesis. -Patients w/ Capgras syndrome also have brain abnormalities in frontal lobe, specifically in the right prefrontal cortex. What is area's normal function:' - turn to fMRI, allows us to track moment-by-moment activity levels in different sites in a living brain. -allows answers to such questions as: When a person is reading, which regions are particularly active or same for listening to music . -can draw conclusions about brain areas function is. -important hint about Capgras syndrome from fMRI scans of patients suffering from schizophrenia -reveals diminished activity in patients' frontal lobes whenever experiencing hallucinations. - plausible interpretation = diminished activity reflects decreased ability to distinguish internal events (thoughts ) from external ones (voices), or distinguish imagined events from real ones. -How is this relevant ? - damage to frontal lobe, Capgras patients may be less able to keep track of what is real and what is not, what is plausible and what is not. -result = weird beliefs can emerge unchecked, including delusions What Do We Learn From Capgras Syndrome? -several lines of evidence supportaccount of Capgras syndrome -Some evidence comes from psychology laboratory onfirms suggestion recognition ordinarily has two separate parts: one on factual knowledge, one "emotional" tied to warm sense of familiarity -additionally , mentioned some of neuroscience evidence -(1) where damage is located in Capgras patients, -(2) likely functions of brain sites when they're not damaged. -evidence fits well w/ hypothesis: - damage to amygdala likely tobe reason Capgras patients experience no sense of familiarity when look at faces they know quite well. - damage to prefrontal cortex, helps understand why Capgras patients, when experience lack of familiarity, offer crazy hypotheses about their skewed perception. pg 29 -understanding of Capgras syndrome depends on combination of evidence drawn from cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience; -use both perspectives to test (and, confirm) hypothesis offered. -just as perspectives can illuminate Capgras syndrome, both can be illuminated by syndrome -can use Capgras syndrome to illuminate broader issues about nature of brain and mind. -Ex- Capgras syndrome suggests amygdala plays a crucial role supporting feeling of familiarity. -Other evidence suggests amygdala plays central part helping people remember emotional events of their lives -other evidence indicates : amygdala plays a role in decision-making esp decisions that rest on emotional evaluations of one's options. - tell us a lot about various functions that make cognition possible and our theorizing needs to include broadly useful "emotional evaluator;' involved in many cognitive processes. -Capgras syndrome tells emotional evaluator works in fashion separate from our evaluation of factual information, -providing way to think about occasions which someone's evaluation of facts points toward one conclusion, while emotional evaluation points toward different conclusion. -great value as we seek to understand processes that support ordinary remembering or decision making. -Cases like Capgras syndrome just as valuable helping understand how brain functions in normal people- when all neural systems intact. -ex considers what syndrome teaches about how parts of brain work together for simplest achievement. -ex order to recognize your father, one part needs to store factual memory of your fathers appearance -Another part responsible for analyzing visual input received when looking at a face. - Another area: job of comparing now-analyzed input to factual information provided from memory,
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2650

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.

Submit