In 1879, two men were helping wilhelm wundt, created an experimental apparatus in germany. Their machine measure the time lag between people"s hearing a ball hit a platform and their pressing a telegraph key. Wundt was seeking to measure atoms of the mind the fastest and simplest mental processes. Before long, this new science of psychology became organized into different branches. Wundt"s student edward bradford titchener aimed to discover the minds structure so he engaged people in self-reflective introspection (looking inward), training people to report elements of their experience while being distracted by something else. Introspection was somewhat unreliable and the results differed from person to person. Wundt ended up writing his own textbook, which he started in 1878, with an apology for the new science of psychology. William james- inspired by charles darwin, james assumed that thinking, like smelling, developed because it was adaptive. As a functionalist, james encourages explorations of emotions, memories, willpower, habitats, and streams of consciousness.