Situation Selection A form of interactionism that refers to the tendency to choose or
select the situations in which on finds oneself. (We do not end up in random situations, we
choose the situations we find ourselves in)
Complementary Needs Theory Theory of attraction that postulates that people are
attracted to people whose personality dispositions differ from theirs. “opposites attract”
Attraction Similarity TheoryStates that individuals are attracted to those whose
personalities are similar to their own.
Assortative mating The phenomenon whereby people marry people similar to
themselves. Personality, as well as physical characteristics.
Violation of Desire According to the violation of desire theory of conflict between the
sexes, breakups should occur more frequently when ones desires are violated than when
they are fulfilled. Following this theory, we would predict that people married to others
who lack desire characteristics, such as dependability and emotional stability, will more
more frequently dissolve the marriage. (473)
Shyness Tendency to feel tense, worried, or anxious during social interactions, or even
when anticipating a social interaction.
Evocation A form f person-situation interaction discussed by Buss. It is based on the
idea that certain personality traits may evoke consistent responses from the environment,
particularly the social environment.
Hostile Attribution Bias The tendency to infer hostile intent on the part of others in the
face of uncertain or unclear behaviour from others. Essentially, people are aggressive
expect others will be hostile towards them.
Expectancy Confirmation A phenomenon whereby peoples beliefs bout the personality
characteristics of others cause them to evoke in others actions that are consistent with the
initial belief. (self-fulfilling prophecy)
Taxonomy A technical names given to a classification scheme – the identifications and
naming of groups within a particular subject field.
Machiavellianism A manipulative strategy of social interaction referring to the
tendency to use other people as tools for personal gain. “High Mach” persons tend to tell
people what they want to hear use flattery to get what they want, and rely heavily on lying
and deception to achieve their own ends. Narcissism A style of inflated self-admiration and the constant attempt to draw
attention to the self and to keep others focused on oneself.
Sex Differences An average difference between men and women on certain
characteristics such as height, body fat distribution etc.
Gender Social Interpretations of what is means to be a man or a woman.
Effect Size How large a particular difference is, or how strong a particular correlation is,
as averaged over several experiments or studies.
Minimalist Those who describe sec differences as small and inconsequential
Maximalist Those who describe sex differences as comparable in magnitude to effect
sizes in other areas of psychology, important to consider, and recommend that they should
not be trivialized (497)
Inhibitory Control The ability to control inappropriate responses or behaviours.
Perceptual Sensitivity The ability to detect subtle stimuli from the environment.
Surgency A cluster of behaviours including approach behaviour, high activity, and
Negative Affectivity Includes components such as anger, sadness, difficulty, and amount
Tender-Mindedness A nurturant proclivity, having empathy for others, and being
sympathetic with those who are downtrodden.
Global Self-Esteem The most frequently measured component of self esteem; defined
as “the level of global regard that one has for the self as a person” Can range from highly
positive to highly negative, and reflects an overall evaluation of the self at the broadest
People-Things Dimension The nature of vocational interest. Those at the ”things” end
of the dimension like vocations that deal with impersonal tasks – machines, tools, or
materials (carpenter, contractor etc.). The “people” end of the dimension prefer social
occupations that involve thinking about others, caring for others, or directing others.
Rumination Repeatedly focusing on ones symptoms of distress. “why do I continue to
feel so bad about myself?”. Key contributor to women’s experiences of depressive
symptoms. Androgynous In certain personality instruments, the masculinity dimension contains
items reflecting assertiveness, boldness, dominance, self-sufficiency, and instrumentality.
The femininity dimension contains items that reflect nurturance, expression of emotions,
empathy. Those peoples who scored high on both dimensions are labeled androgynous, to
reflect the notion that a single person can possess both masculine and feminine
Instrumentality Personality traits that involve working with objects, getting tasks
completed in a direct fashion, shoeing independence from others, and displaying self-
Expressiveness The ease with which one can express emotions, such as crying, showing
empathy for the troubles of others, and showing nurturance to those in need.
Gender Schemata Cognitive orientations that lead individuals to process social
information on the basis of sex-linked associations.
Social Categories The cognitive component that describes the ways individuals classify
other people into groups. Aspect of stereotypes.
Socialization Theory The notion that boys and girls become different because boys are
reinforced by parents, teachers, and media for being “masculine”, and girls for being
Social Role Theory Sex differences originate because men and women are distributed
differentially into occupational and family roles.
Hormonal Theories Hormonal theories of sex differences argue that men and women
differ not because of the external social environment but because the sexes have different
amounts of specific hormones. It is those physiological differences, not differential social
treatment that causes boys and girls to differ over development.
Adaptive Problems Anything that impedes survival or reproduction.
Cultural Variations Within-group similarities and between group differences can be of
any sort – Physical, Psychological, behavioural, or attitudinal. These phenomena are often
referred to as cultural variations. Two ingredients are necessary to explain cultural
variations A universal underlying mechanism
Environmental differences in the degree to which the underlying mechanism is
Cultural Personality Psychology Three key goals
To discover the principles underlying the cultural diversity
To discover how human psychology shapes culture
To discover how cultural understandings in turn shape our psychology
Evoked Culture A way of considering culture that concentrates on phenomena that are
triggered in different ways by different environmental conditions
High-Variance Conditions One key variable triggering communal food sharing is the
degree of variability in food resources. Specifically under high variance conditions, there
are substantial benefits to sharing. 524
Egalitarianism How much a particular group displays equal treatment of all individuals
within that group.
Culture of Honor Differences in the degree to which honor becomes a central part of the
culture rests ultimately with economic, and specifically with the manner in which food I
Transmitted Culture Representations originally in the mind of one or more persons
that are transmitted to the minds of other people.
Levels of self-enhancement
Interdependence How you are affiliated with, attached to, or engaged in the larger
group of which you are a member. Interdependence includes your relationships with other
members of the group and our embededness with the group.
Balkanization Social re-segregation following a time of peaceful integration and social
Individualism A sense of self as autonomous and independent, with priority given to
IndependenceHow you differentiate yourself from a large group.
CollectivismIn collectivistic societies, people are interdependent with others in the
group, giving priority to the goals of their in- groups. People in collectivist societies tend to
be especially concerned about social relationships. Acculturation The process of, after arriving in a new culture, adapting to the ways of life
and beliefs common in that new culture.
Holistic A way of processing information that involves attention to relationships,
contexts, and links between the focal objects and the field as a whole.
Analytic The event with the object detached from its context, attributes of objects or
people assigned to categories, and a reliance on rules about the categories to explain
Self-Enhancement The tendency to describe and present oneself using positive or
socially valued attributes.
Within-Culture Variations Variations within a particular culture that can arise form
Cultural Universals Features of personality that is common to everyone in all cultures.
Whorfian Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity The ideas that people can think and the
emotions they feel are constrained by the words that happen to exist in their language and
culture and with which they use to express them.
Lexical Hypothesis The approach determining the fundamental personality traits by
analyzing language. Ex. A trait adjective that has many synonyms probably represents a
more fundamental trait than a trait adjective with few synonyms.
Health Psychology Study of the relations between the mind and the body, and how
these two components respond to challenges from the environment to produce illness or
Stress The subjective feeling that is produces by uncontrollable and threatening events.
Interactional Model Objective events happen to a person, but personality factors
determine the impact of hose events by influencing the persons ability to cope.
Transactional Model Personality has three potential effects
It can influence coping, as in the interactional model
It can influence how the person appraises or interprets the events
It can influence exposure to the events themselves
Health Behaviour Model personality does not directly influence the relation between
stress and illness. Instead, Personality affects health indirectly, through health-promoting