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Personality Notes CHP 15,16,17,18, 19

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter15 Situation Selection A form of interactionism that refers to the tendency to choose or select the situations in which on finds oneself. (We do not end up in random situations, we choose the situations we find ourselves in) Complementary Needs Theory Theory of attraction that postulates that people are attracted to people whose personality dispositions differ from theirs. “opposites attract” Attraction Similarity TheoryStates that individuals are attracted to those whose personalities are similar to their own. Assortative mating The phenomenon whereby people marry people similar to themselves. Personality, as well as physical characteristics. Violation of Desire According to the violation of desire theory of conflict between the sexes, breakups should occur more frequently when ones desires are violated than when they are fulfilled. Following this theory, we would predict that people married to others who lack desire characteristics, such as dependability and emotional stability, will more more frequently dissolve the marriage. (473) Shyness Tendency to feel tense, worried, or anxious during social interactions, or even when anticipating a social interaction. Evocation A form f person-situation interaction discussed by Buss. It is based on the idea that certain personality traits may evoke consistent responses from the environment, particularly the social environment. Hostile Attribution Bias The tendency to infer hostile intent on the part of others in the face of uncertain or unclear behaviour from others. Essentially, people are aggressive expect others will be hostile towards them. Expectancy Confirmation  A phenomenon whereby peoples beliefs bout the personality characteristics of others cause them to evoke in others actions that are consistent with the initial belief. (self-fulfilling prophecy) Taxonomy A technical names given to a classification scheme – the identifications and naming of groups within a particular subject field. Machiavellianism  A manipulative strategy of social interaction referring to the tendency to use other people as tools for personal gain. “High Mach” persons tend to tell people what they want to hear use flattery to get what they want, and rely heavily on lying and deception to achieve their own ends. Narcissism  A style of inflated self-admiration and the constant attempt to draw attention to the self and to keep others focused on oneself. Chapter 16 Sex Differences An average difference between men and women on certain characteristics such as height, body fat distribution etc. Gender Social Interpretations of what is means to be a man or a woman. Effect Size How large a particular difference is, or how strong a particular correlation is, as averaged over several experiments or studies. Minimalist Those who describe sec differences as small and inconsequential Maximalist Those who describe sex differences as comparable in magnitude to effect sizes in other areas of psychology, important to consider, and recommend that they should not be trivialized (497) Inhibitory Control  The ability to control inappropriate responses or behaviours. Perceptual Sensitivity The ability to detect subtle stimuli from the environment. Surgency A cluster of behaviours including approach behaviour, high activity, and impulsivity. Negative Affectivity Includes components such as anger, sadness, difficulty, and amount of distress. Tender-Mindedness A nurturant proclivity, having empathy for others, and being sympathetic with those who are downtrodden. Global Self-Esteem  The most frequently measured component of self esteem; defined as “the level of global regard that one has for the self as a person” Can range from highly positive to highly negative, and reflects an overall evaluation of the self at the broadest level. People-Things Dimension The nature of vocational interest. Those at the ”things” end of the dimension like vocations that deal with impersonal tasks – machines, tools, or materials (carpenter, contractor etc.). The “people” end of the dimension prefer social occupations that involve thinking about others, caring for others, or directing others. Rumination Repeatedly focusing on ones symptoms of distress. “why do I continue to feel so bad about myself?”. Key contributor to women’s experiences of depressive symptoms. Androgynous In certain personality instruments, the masculinity dimension contains items reflecting assertiveness, boldness, dominance, self-sufficiency, and instrumentality. The femininity dimension contains items that reflect nurturance, expression of emotions, empathy. Those peoples who scored high on both dimensions are labeled androgynous, to reflect the notion that a single person can possess both masculine and feminine characteristics. Instrumentality Personality traits that involve working with objects, getting tasks completed in a direct fashion, shoeing independence from others, and displaying self- sufficiency. Expressiveness  The ease with which one can express emotions, such as crying, showing empathy for the troubles of others, and showing nurturance to those in need. Gender Schemata  Cognitive orientations that lead individuals to process social information on the basis of sex-linked associations. Social Categories The cognitive component that describes the ways individuals classify other people into groups. Aspect of stereotypes. Socialization Theory The notion that boys and girls become different because boys are reinforced by parents, teachers, and media for being “masculine”, and girls for being “feminine”. Social Role Theory  Sex differences originate because men and women are distributed differentially into occupational and family roles. Hormonal Theories  Hormonal theories of sex differences argue that men and women differ not because of the external social environment but because the sexes have different amounts of specific hormones. It is those physiological differences, not differential social treatment that causes boys and girls to differ over development. Adaptive Problems Anything that impedes survival or reproduction. Chapter 17 Cultural Variations  Within-group similarities and between group differences can be of any sort – Physical, Psychological, behavioural, or attitudinal. These phenomena are often referred to as cultural variations. Two ingredients are necessary to explain cultural variations  A universal underlying mechanism  Environmental differences in the degree to which the underlying mechanism is activated. Cultural Personality Psychology Three key goals  To discover the principles underlying the cultural diversity  To discover how human psychology shapes culture  To discover how cultural understandings in turn shape our psychology Evoked Culture A way of considering culture that concentrates on phenomena that are triggered in different ways by different environmental conditions High-Variance Conditions One key variable triggering communal food sharing is the degree of variability in food resources. Specifically under high variance conditions, there are substantial benefits to sharing. 524 Egalitarianism  How much a particular group displays equal treatment of all individuals within that group. Culture of Honor Differences in the degree to which honor becomes a central part of the culture rests ultimately with economic, and specifically with the manner in which food I obtained. 526 Transmitted Culture Representations originally in the mind of one or more persons that are transmitted to the minds of other people.  Moral values  Self-concept  Levels of self-enhancement Interdependence How you are affiliated with, attached to, or engaged in the larger group of which you are a member. Interdependence includes your relationships with other members of the group and our embededness with the group. Balkanization  Social re-segregation following a time of peaceful integration and social diversity Individualism A sense of self as autonomous and independent, with priority given to personal goals. IndependenceHow you differentiate yourself from a large group. CollectivismIn collectivistic societies, people are interdependent with others in the group, giving priority to the goals of their in- groups. People in collectivist societies tend to be especially concerned about social relationships. Acculturation The process of, after arriving in a new culture, adapting to the ways of life and beliefs common in that new culture. Holistic A way of processing information that involves attention to relationships, contexts, and links between the focal objects and the field as a whole. Analytic The event with the object detached from its context, attributes of objects or people assigned to categories, and a reliance on rules about the categories to explain behaviour. Self-Enhancement  The tendency to describe and present oneself using positive or socially valued attributes. Within-Culture Variations Variations within a particular culture that can arise form several sources. Cultural Universals  Features of personality that is common to everyone in all cultures. Whorfian Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity  The ideas that people can think and the emotions they feel are constrained by the words that happen to exist in their language and culture and with which they use to express them. Lexical Hypothesis  The approach determining the fundamental personality traits by analyzing language. Ex. A trait adjective that has many synonyms probably represents a more fundamental trait than a trait adjective with few synonyms. Chapter 18 Health Psychology Study of the relations between the mind and the body, and how these two components respond to challenges from the environment to produce illness or health. Stress The subjective feeling that is produces by uncontrollable and threatening events. Interactional Model  Objective events happen to a person, but personality factors determine the impact of hose events by influencing the persons ability to cope. Transactional Model  Personality has three potential effects  It can influence coping, as in the interactional model  It can influence how the person appraises or interprets the events  It can influence exposure to the events themselves Health Behaviour Model personality does not directly influence the relation between stress and illness. Instead, Personality affects health indirectly, through health-promoting or health-degr
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