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Lecture 18

PSYC 2740 Lecture 18: Lecture 18 -March 30
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2740
Professor
Lewis Stephen
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 18 March 30 Personality Mental Illness Mental illness * Behavioralpsychological syndrome experienced by an individual * Causes persistent distressdisability (I.e. functional impairment) * A diagnosis works to classify disorders not people * Up to 15 people will experience mental illness in their lifetime Stigma, labels and mental illness * Stigma: negative attitudes andor stereotypes towards mental illness based on prejudice andor misinformation Can result in pejorative labels, marginalization, discrimination, reduced helpseeking, isolation. Etc. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) * Formerly, multiple personality disorder but is, a dissociative disorder * Key features: Having 2 or more distinct identities (aka alters) each with its own pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the selfenvironment 2 or more of the identities recurrently yield discontinuity in sense of self and thus bring about changes in affect, behavior, memory, perception, cognition, etc. Recurrent gaps in memory regarding personal information, daily life events, andor past trauma (concerning 1 or more identity) *this is not explained by simple forgetting* * Rate: ~1.5, though rates have been debated * DID associated with: PTSD, somatic complaints, depression, anxiety, selfharm, aggression, suicide, reports of past abuse * DID, abuse and repressed memories: Reports of sexual and physical abuse are high; as are reports of repressed memories 1+ identity is often hostileaggressiveprotective * Amnesia is common (less so for hostileaggressive identity) * DID treatment is longterm Psychotherapy: promote safe, secure environment and help reintegrate identities, treat comorbid disorders Pharmacotherapy: treat comorbid disorders and symptoms Personality and depression * Several traits often implicated high neuroticism negative emotionality, High selfcriticism and perfectionism, Low extraversionpositive emotionality, Low conscientiousness * Part of the personalitydepression link may be due to shared etiology. Unlikely that depressive episodes yield enduring personality changes. But, personality may affect course of depression and its treatment Personality and treatment of depression * High neuroticism may indicate better response to medication * High agreeableness may indicate better response to psychotherapy * High extraversion may indicate better response to treatment overall * High conscientiousness and high openness may indicate better overall response Psychosis * Presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or disorganized behavior (at times, catatonic behavior) Delusions: beliefsthought that involve misinterpretation of perceptions or experiences (e.g. paranoia) Hallucinations: sensory experiences that occur in the absence of stimulation from the environment (e.g. hearing voices) Neuroticism and psychosis * Participants: almost 4k individuals without psychosis history
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