PSYC 2740 Lecture Notes - Unconditional Positive Regard, Problem Gambling, Sensation Seeking

25 views13 pages
Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2740
Professor
Page:
of 13
Personality Lectures Pre-Midterm 2
Lecture 7 Physiological Approaches to Personality
Building a theoretical bridge
(Refer to Chart in Notes on Chapter 7)
- A physiological response to which leads to a physiological indicator (heart rate etc)
Common physiological measures in personality research
Electro dermal Activity
- Provides a measure of sympathetic nervous system activity
- Electrode to palm of hand
- (skin conductance)
- Skin conductance and self injury
o Emotional reactivity intensity and persistence of emotion in response to stimuli
o Thought to elevates among those who self-injure
Particularly with negative events/ stressful tasks
o Stress Inductions: Matching game in which failure feedback is given (even when a
response is correct) Goal is to determine how long people stay in the game
People who self injure get more distressed, and higher levels of skin
conductance
o Main Findings (Nick and Mendes)
Individuals with a history of self-injury have elevated skin conductance and
more negative emotional reactivity to stress
Individuals who self-injure also quit game sooner: lower distress tolerance
Implication: emotional reactivity and distress tolerance may be key to
understanding self-injury
Cardiovascular Activity
- Blood Pressure (BP)
o Pressure exerted on artery walls, common measure of stress
- Heart Rate
o Expressed in BPM
o Good indicator of stress, cognitive effort
o Some people are much more reactive than others
o Cardiac Reactivity: the increase in BP and HR in times of stress
o Chronic cardiac reactivity linked with Type A personality (particularly hostility)
Brain Activity
- EEG measures brain activity (electricity) via electrodes to determine areas of brain activity
9cannot show area of brain)
- fMRI shows area of brain activity
- MRI and Psychopathy
o Decreases limbic activation when viewing violent images for those high in psychopathy
vs. a control group (who had more activity)
- Neuroticism: correlated with increase activation in the frontal brain to negative images
- Extraverted: correlated frontal brain increase activity to positive images
Physiological Personality Theories
Eysenck’s Original Theory
- Ascending Reticular Activating System “gateway” for nervous stimulation of cortex
o Introversion higher resting cortical arousal (ARAS lets in too much)v (too much stimuli
so they seek solitary conditions)
o Extraversion lower resting cortical arousal (they seek it out)
Eysenck’s Revised Theory
- Those high in introversion or extraversion DO NOT have a different resting states of arousal
- The difference lies in degree of arousability (supported by research)
Sensitivity to reward and punishment
- BAS (Behavioural activation system) response to rewards AND regulates approach behaviour
o Active BAS impulsivity
- BIS (Behavioural inhibition system) responsive to punishment, uncertainty AND motivates
inhibition/avoidance
o Active BIS Anxiety
- Impulsivity high extraversion; moderate neuroticism
*responds poorly to punishment; and more to reward
- Anxiety high neuroticism; moderate introversion
Sensation Seeking
- Tendency to seek out thrills, seek experience, take risks and avoid boredom
- Supported by: optimal level of arousal theory people motivated by their optimal arousal
Physiological Basis of sensation-seeking
- Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) regulates of neurotransmitters (by breaking it down)
- Too much MAO too little neurotransmitter
- Too little MAO too much neurotransmitter
- High sensation seekers have low MAO
Problem Gambling and Personality
- Problem gambling
o High sensation seeking
o High impulsivity
- Recent 3 year longitudinal study (18 to 21)
o Sensation seeking and impulsivity predicted problem gambling
Neurotransmitters and Personality
- Cloninger’s Tridimensional Personality Model
o Low levels of dopamine in novelty/sensation seeking
o *low levels* serotonin in harm avoidance
o Low levels norepinephrine in reward dependence
Morningness- Eveningness
- Biological processes fluctuate on a 24-25 jour cycle called: Circadian rhythms
- Shorter circadian rhythms hit peaks earlier; sleep earlier at night
- Longer circadian rhythms hit peaks later; sleep later at night
Morningness- Eveningness and Depressive Symptoms
- Chelminski et al., 1998
o Main findings: higher in evengingness correlated with higher depressive symptoms
o Implication: eveningness may help understand biological mechanisms responsible for
depression
o Morningness may help understand those are protective
Brain Asymmetry
- Hemispheres of brain are specialized and involved in specific functions
o EEG measures brain activity Ex. Alpha Wave (inverse indicator of brain activity) (more
activity of these when asleep)
o Emotions often measured by activation in the frontal brain
Brain Asymmetry and Affective Style
- Left frontal hemisphere: more active when experiencing pleasant emotions
- Right frontal hemisphere: more active when experiencing negative emotions
- This response is stable and affective style is thus considered trait-alike
October 18, 2011
Motives and Personality

Document Summary

Building a theoretical bridge (refer to chart in notes on chapter 7) A physiological response to which leads to a physiological indicator (heart rate etc) Provides a measure of sympathetic nervous system activity. Skin conductance and self injury: emotional reactivity intensity and persistence of emotion in response to stimuli, thought to elevates among those who self-injure. Particularly with negative events/ stressful tasks: stress inductions: matching game in which failure feedback is given (even when a response is correct) goal is to determine how long people stay in the game. People who self injure get more distressed, and higher levels of skin conductance: main findings (nick and mendes) Individuals with a history of self-injury have elevated skin conductance and more negative emotional reactivity to stress. Individuals who self-injure also quit game sooner: lower distress tolerance. Implication: emotional reactivity and distress tolerance may be key to understanding self-injury. Blood pressure (bp: pressure exerted on artery walls, common measure of stress.