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2740 Pre-Miderm 2.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Personality Lectures Pre-Midterm 2 Lecture 7 Physiological Approaches to Personality Building a theoretical bridge (Refer to Chart in Notes on Chapter 7) - A physiological response to which leads to a physiological indicator (heart rate etc) Common physiological measures in personality research Electro dermal Activity - Provides a measure of sympathetic nervous system activity - Electrode to palm of hand - (skin conductance) - Skin conductance and self injury o Emotional reactivity  intensity and persistence of emotion in response to stimuli o Thought to elevates among those who self-injure  Particularly with negative events/ stressful tasks o Stress Inductions: Matching game in which failure feedback is given (even when a response is correct)  Goal is to determine how long people stay in the game  People who self injure get more distressed, and higher levels of skin conductance o Main Findings (Nick and Mendes)  Individuals with a history of self-injury have elevated skin conductance and more negative emotional reactivity to stress  Individuals who self-injure also quit game sooner: lower distress tolerance  Implication: emotional reactivity and distress tolerance may be key to understanding self-injury Cardiovascular Activity - Blood Pressure (BP) o Pressure exerted on artery walls, common measure of stress - Heart Rate o Expressed in BPM o Good indicator of stress, cognitive effort o Some people are much more reactive than others o Cardiac Reactivity: the increase in BP and HR in times of stress o Chronic cardiac reactivity linked with Type A personality (particularly hostility) Brain Activity - EEG measures brain activity (electricity) via electrodes to determine areas of brain activity 9cannot show area of brain) - fMRI shows area of brain activity - MRI and Psychopathy o Decreases limbic activation when viewing violent images for those high in psychopathy vs. a control group (who had more activity) - Neuroticism: correlated with increase activation in the frontal brain to negative images - Extraverted: correlated frontal brain increase activity to positive images Physiological Personality Theories Eysenck’s Original Theory - Ascending Reticular Activating System “gateway” for nervous stimulation of cortex o Introversion higher resting cortical arousal (ARAS lets in too much)v (too much stimuli so they seek solitary conditions) o Extraversion lower resting cortical arousal (they seek it out) Eysenck’s Revised Theory - Those high in introversion or extraversion DO NOT have a different resting states of arousal - The difference lies in degree of arousability (supported by research) Sensitivity to reward and punishment - BAS (Behavioural activation system) response to rewards AND regulates approach behaviour o Active BAS  impulsivity - BIS (Behavioural inhibition system)  responsive to punishment, uncertainty AND motivates inhibition/avoidance o Active BIS Anxiety - Impulsivity  high extraversion; moderate neuroticism *responds poorly to punishment; and more to reward - Anxiety high neuroticism; moderate introversion Sensation Seeking - Tendency to seek out thrills, seek experience, take risks and avoid boredom - Supported by: optimal level of arousal theory  people motivated by their optimal arousal Physiological Basis of sensation-seeking - Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) regulates of neurotransmitters (by breaking it down) - Too much MAO too little neurotransmitter - Too little MAO too much neurotransmitter - High sensation seekers have low MAO Problem Gambling and Personality - Problem gambling o High sensation seeking o High impulsivity - Recent 3 year longitudinal study (18 to 21) o Sensation seeking and impulsivity predicted problem gambling Neurotransmitters and Personality - Cloninger’s Tridimensional Personality Model o Low levels of dopamine in novelty/sensation seeking o *low levels* serotonin in harm avoidance o Low levels norepinephrine in reward dependence Morningness- Eveningness - Biological processes fluctuate on a 24-25 jour cycle called: Circadian rhythms - Shorter circadian rhythms hit peaks earlier; sleep earlier at night - Longer circadian rhythms hit peaks later; sleep later at night Morningness- Eveningness and Depressive Symptoms - Chelminski et al., 1998 o Main findings: higher in evengingness correlated with higher depressive symptoms o Implication: eveningness may help understand biological mechanisms responsible for depression o Morningness may help understand those are protective Brain Asymmetry - Hemispheres of brain are specialized and involved in specific functions o EEG measures brain activity  Ex. Alpha Wave (inverse indicator of brain activity) (more activity of these when asleep) o Emotions often measured by activation in the frontal brain Brain Asymmetry and Affective Style - Left frontal hemisphere: more active when experiencing pleasant emotions - Right frontal hemisphere: more active when experiencing negative emotions - This response is stable and affective style is thus considered trait-alike October 18, 2011 Motives and Personality Motives and Needs Motives internal states that arouse and direct behaviour toward specific goals Needs states of tension within a person (refer to a deficit, you don’t have something now so you need to fulfil it) Needs (Murray’s Work) - Needs associated with o Specific desire/intention o Specific emotions o Specific action tendencies - According to Murray: Needs structure in a hierarchy and interact with each other. Some are more salient than others. In certain context certain needs come out. - Needs influenced by environmental factors o Press  need-relevant aspects of our environment (behave in a different matter in same situation) o Alpha press vs. Beta Press o Alpha what actually happens (job available/ person looking at you) o Beta what is interpreted (going for job or not/ person likes you or is weird) - Needs in Murray’s Hierarchy o Ambition  Achievement  Exhibition  Order o Social Power:  Aggression  Autonomy  Blame-avoidance o Social Affection  Affiliation  Nurturance  Succorance (to be loved/ cared for) Murray’s Needs: A Suicide Theory - unmet needs o particularly: to nurture, be loved, achieve, avoid shame o if these aren’t met it leads to Psychache o Psychache: a general psychological and emotional pain that reaches an intolerable intensity o This leads to suicide Case Study: Ariel - What needs were unmet? o Nurturance, succorance, - How would you describe Ariel’s psychache? o Unbearable o It got so overwhelming that she could only see one way out Assessing Murray’s Needs - Assessed using a projective technique o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) o making sense of one’s needs Big Three Motives (driven by needs) - Achievement - Power - Intimacy The Need for Achievement (nAch) - Those high in nAch prefer: o Moderate challenges o Tasks where they can claim responsibility o Tasks where feedback is provided - nAch: Sex differences o women high in nAch AND who value work and family: higher grades and success at university; marry and have families later o women more focused on family with high nACh: higher dating investment and focus on appearance, talk about dating more o males vs. females: for males, there is less stress/difficulty in childhood (more support/care) - nAch: Achievement Promotion o independence training: parental strategies to promote autonomy and independence o Standard Training: informing children of what is expected (realistically) and offering support The Need for Power (nPow) desire to have an impact on others - High nPow levels associate with: more arguments, take larger risks, more assertive/active in groups, more possessions, elected to office more - High interest in control  usually control over other individuals - nPow: Sex Differences o men higher in nPow: more… unsatisfactory relationships. Divorces, cheating in relationships, alcohol abuse, aggression, impulsivity o impulsivity: responsibility training can safeguard against higher impulsivity - nPow: Outcomes o power stress: when power is blocked, challenges or a person doesn’t get own way  high power stress: negative impact on immune system  associated with: high blood pressure, muscle tension. Colds, flu The Need for Intimacy (nInt) preference for warm, close and fulfilling relationships - high in nInt: more: expressiveness about relationships; pleasant emotions with others, initiation of conversation o women (on average) have high nInt vs. men Humanistic Tradition - Emphasizes: o Choice in human life o Responsibility to create a meaningful life o Need for growth and to reach one’s own full potential - Self- actualization: what one is capable of becoming Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Rogers’ Work: reaching self-actualization - Fully functional person: o Someone who is on his/her way to self-actualization o Focuses on present, open to experience and trusting of his/her self o Living in the here/now Basis of Self-Actualizing: positive regard - Positive regard: innate need to be loved and accepted by caregivers - 1. Unconditional positive regard - 2. Conditional positive regard based on conditions of worth - 3. Positive Self-regard accepting ourselves for strengths and weaknesses Promoting Self-actualizing - Anxiety having an experience that does not fit with one’s view of the self - Distortion modifying one’s experience rather than one’s self-image (to reduce the threat) - Self-actualizing relates to emotional intelligence Client Centred Therapy - The therapist helps client to change him or herself - 3 core conditions: o Genuine acceptance (warmth and acceptance; you’re t
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