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Lecture 19

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Lecture 19 – Personality Disorders th November 27 , 2012 Psychopathy and the Legal System 20% of the prison population meets criteria for psychopathy; 50% or greater of violent crimes are perpetrated by psychopaths; psychopathy is often used to recidivism (likelihood of re-offending). Psychopathy & Antisocial PD Most people who would meet the criteria for psychopathy also meet criteria for ASPD; but most who have ASPD do not meet criteria for psychopathy. Psychopathy Antisocial Personality Disorder Includes anti-social behaviour but more emphasis on More focus on the behaviours that are antisocial. lack of empathy, callous social attitudes, glib, superficial Behaviours tend to reduce over the lifespan (as do some charm. traits) Extends across lifespan (through traits do reduce a bit) DSM-IV-TR diagnosis Not a current diagnosis Avoidant Personality People feel like they are not good enough; feelings of inadequacy; sensitive to criticism, any kind of remark (constructive) is going to make them very sensitive and wrong; restricts activities to avoid embarrassments; low self- esteem. Dependant Personality Excessive need to be taken care of by others; extremely submissive (more vulnerable to being taken advantage of); constantly making sure that other will be there for them (seeks reassurance from others); rarely takes initiate and rarely disagrees with others (more likely to follow suit); does not work well independently (need direction); may tolerate abuse from others to obtain support (fear of being alone). Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder Not the same as OCD; preoccupied with order (need to take the same route to work every day); strives for perfection; devoted to work, seeks little leisure time or friendship (spend a lot of time doing work, have very high standards); frequently miserly or stingy (not loose with their money or posessions); rigid and inflexible, stubborn (can’t be swayed); can become distraught if things don’t go their way. *most common personality disorder Lecture 20 – NSSI and Personality Nonsuicidal Self-injury (NSSI): the intentional destruction of one’s body tissue in the absence of conscious suicidal intent and for purposes that are not socially or culturally sanctioned or accepted; not including tattoos or piercing. Methods Cutting Scratching/Scraping Burning Wound interference Burning Hitting/bruising Self-embedding: kids had embedded paperclips or staples into their skins Onset and Sex Differences Age at onset  typically early-mid adolescence (can start at any age). Sex differences  no differences in overall rates but there are sex differences. Methods  females may cut more; males may burn/hit more. Body location  females: wrists, thighs, more repetitive; males: hands (often hitting things). Rates 13.9 – 21.4% of youth and young adults have self-injured (based on even doing it one time). University students: approx. 17% of students; 1 in 6; of this percent, 70% did it more than once (females tended to repeat more than males). NSSI & Emotionality Negative emotionality: compare those who currently self-injure  previously self-injured  never self-injured Those who currently self-injure report more negative emotionality than those who previously self-injured, but those who never self-injured have less emotional emotionality compared to those who previously did; those who self-injure may have more difficulty tolerating negative emotions and wish to escape them sooner. NSSI & Experiential Avoidance Experiential avoidance: any behaviour used to avoid or escape from unwanted internal experience or their triggers (certain interactions or individuals that may cause discomfort); difficulty regulating emotion. Exp
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