Lecture 19 – Personality Disorders
November 27 , 2012
Psychopathy and the Legal System
20% of the prison population meets criteria for psychopathy; 50% or greater of violent crimes are perpetrated by
psychopaths; psychopathy is often used to recidivism (likelihood of re-offending).
Psychopathy & Antisocial PD
Most people who would meet the criteria for psychopathy also meet criteria for ASPD; but most who have ASPD do not
meet criteria for psychopathy.
Psychopathy Antisocial Personality Disorder
Includes anti-social behaviour but more emphasis on More focus on the behaviours that are antisocial.
lack of empathy, callous social attitudes, glib, superficial Behaviours tend to reduce over the lifespan (as do some
Extends across lifespan (through traits do reduce a bit) DSM-IV-TR diagnosis
Not a current diagnosis
People feel like they are not good enough; feelings of inadequacy; sensitive to criticism, any kind of remark
(constructive) is going to make them very sensitive and wrong; restricts activities to avoid embarrassments; low self-
Excessive need to be taken care of by others; extremely submissive (more vulnerable to being taken advantage of);
constantly making sure that other will be there for them (seeks reassurance from others); rarely takes initiate and rarely
disagrees with others (more likely to follow suit); does not work well independently (need direction); may tolerate abuse
from others to obtain support (fear of being alone).
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder
Not the same as OCD; preoccupied with order (need to take the same route to work every day); strives for perfection;
devoted to work, seeks little leisure time or friendship (spend a lot of time doing work, have very high standards);
frequently miserly or stingy (not loose with their money or posessions); rigid and inflexible, stubborn (can’t be swayed);
can become distraught if things don’t go their way. *most common personality disorder
Lecture 20 – NSSI and Personality
Nonsuicidal Self-injury (NSSI): the intentional destruction of one’s body tissue in the absence of conscious suicidal
intent and for purposes that are not socially or culturally sanctioned or accepted; not including tattoos or piercing.
Cutting Scratching/Scraping Burning
Wound interference Burning Hitting/bruising
Self-embedding: kids had embedded paperclips or staples into their skins Onset and Sex Differences
Age at onset typically early-mid adolescence (can start at any age).
Sex differences no differences in overall rates but there are sex differences.
Methods females may cut more; males may burn/hit more.
Body location females: wrists, thighs, more repetitive; males: hands (often hitting things).
13.9 – 21.4% of youth and young adults have self-injured (based on even doing it one time).
University students: approx. 17% of students; 1 in 6; of this percent, 70% did it more than once (females tended to
repeat more than males).
NSSI & Emotionality
Negative emotionality: compare those who currently self-injure previously self-injured never self-injured
Those who currently self-injure report more negative emotionality than those who previously self-injured, but those
who never self-injured have less emotional emotionality compared to those who previously did; those who self-injure
may have more difficulty tolerating negative emotions and wish to escape them sooner.
NSSI & Experiential Avoidance
Experiential avoidance: any behaviour used to avoid or escape from unwanted internal experience or their triggers
(certain interactions or individuals that may cause discomfort); difficulty regulating emotion.