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Lecture

Ch_18_notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2740
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 18 Stress Coping Adjustment and HealthNow that we are able to cure microbe infections psychological factors have emerged as important contributors to the development of illnessThe realization that psychological and behavioural factors can have important health consequences has given rise to the field of health psychologyoResearchers in this area of psychology study the relationship between the mind and body as well as the ways in which these two components respond to challenges from the environment ex stressful events germs to produce either illness or healthMany of the psychological variables of interest have to do with stable patterns of behaviouroEx whether they cope well with stress exercise avoid drugs drink alcohol in moderation practice safe sex etcModels of the PersonalityIllness ConnectionThese models ways of thinking about how personality can relate to health take the form of diagrams of key variables with the causal relations among those variables depicted by arrowsIn most of these models the variable of stress will be importantStress is the subjective feeling produced by events that are uncontrollable or threateningoStress is a response to the perceived demands in some situationstress is not in the situationoStress refers to how people respond to a particular situationTHE INTERACTIONAL MODELAn early model of the personality health relationship is called the interactional modelThis model suggests that objective events happen to people but personality factors determine the impact of those events on coping responses In this model personality has its effects on coping responses how people respond to the eventoIe events such as exposure to microbes or chronic stress cause illness but personality factors make a person more or less vulnerable to those eventsCRITICISM researchers were unable to identify stable coping responses that were consistently adaptive or maladaptiveTHE TRANSACTIONAL MODELSubsequently the interactional model was developed into a more complex and perhaps realistic model the transactional modeloin this model personality has three potential effects1it can influence coping as in the interactional model2it can influence how the person appraises or interprets the eventsCHAPTER 18 Stress Coping Adjustment and Healthin this model it is not the event itself that causes the stress but how the event is appraisedinterpreted by the person different people experience difference levels of stress in response to the same events3it can influence the events themselves people create situations through their choices and actionspeople select to be in certain kinds of situations and they evoke certain responses in those situationsex a highly neurotic person may create situations in which others frequently avoid them a disagreeable person may create interpersonal situations in which they get into a lot of argumentsTHE HEALTH BEHAVIOUR MODELThe third model the health behaviour model adds another factor to the transactional modelIn this model personality does not directly influence the relationship between stress and illnessInstead in this model personality affects health indirectly through healthpromoting or health degrading behaviours This model suggests that personality influences the degree to which a person engages in various healthpromoting or healthdegrading behavioursoEx extraversion is associated with some healthdegrading behaviours such as a tendency to smokeTHE PREDISPOSITION MODELHolds that personality and illness are both expressions of an underlying predispositionSuggests that associations exist between personality and illness because of a third variable which is causing them both
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