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University of Guelph
PSYC 2740

CHAPTER 11Motives and Personality Personality psychologists ask Why do people do what they doMotivational psychologists ask What do they wantBasic ConceptsMotivesare Internal states that arouse and direct behaviour toward specific objects or goalsoOften caused by a deficit or lack of something ex if a person hasnt eaten in many hours they are motivated by hungeroMotives differ in intensity depending on the person and their circumstancesMotives are often based on needs states of tension within a personoAs a need is satisfied the state of tension is reducedoThe state of tension is caused by a deficit Ex the need to eat creates the motive of hunger The motive of hunger in turn causes the person to seek out food think about food constantly and perhaps even to see food in objects not normally thought of as foodMotives propel people to perceive think and act in specific ways that satisfy the needMotive psychologists stress thatoPeople differ in the type and strength of their motivesoThese differences are measureableoThese differences cause or are associated with important life outcomes business success marital satisfactionoDifferences between people in the relative amounts of various motives are stable over timeoMotives may provide one answer to the question Why do people do what they doHenry Murray was one of the first researchers to develop a modern theory of motivationNEED MurrayAccording to Murray a need is a potentiality or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain circumstancesit is a noun which stands for the fact that a certain trend is apt to recurNeeds organize perception guiding us to see what we wantneed to see oEx someone who has a high need for power may see every day situations as opportunities to boss others aroundA need also organizes action by compelling a person to do what is necessary to fulfill the need
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