- Salem witch trials
- Ceci and Bruck ( 1993) outlined four factors that led to the renewed interest
- in child witnesses:
o 1. Expert psychological testimony was becoming more acceptable in the courtroom.
o 2. Social scientists were interested in research that could be applied to real-world
o 3. Studies on adult eyewitness testimony were increasing.
o 4. The legal community became interested in behavioural science research regarding
o child witnesses.
RECALL FOR EVENTS
Free Recall v. Direct Questioning
- with free narrative, accuracy is comparable w adults
- leading, direct questions produce a more erroneous response
- direct questions w yes or no or forced response format are problematic for pre-schoolers
- a response believed to be desired by interviewer
Changes to the cognitive system
- differences in the way children and adults store, retrieve and encode
- social and cognitive factors are responsible for suggestibility
- When direct questions were posed, children 3 to 6 years old were more likely to use the dolls to
reenact what occurred than to report verbally. In contrast, 7 to 12 year olds reported more
details verbally than with the dolls. Younger children were more likely to play with the dolls in a
suggestive manner and to contradict details that were reported verbally. Overall, both younger
and older children reported proportionally more "fantastic" details with the dolls than without.
- Contrary to the above results, Goodman, Quas, Batterman-Faunce, Riddlesberger, and
Kuhn (1997) found that 3- to 10-year-olds who had been touched during an examination
were more likely to report such touching with dolls than when questioned orally. In another
study, Saywitz, Goodman, Nicholas, and Moan (1991) interviewed 5- and 7-year-old girls
who had received a physical examination. For half the girls, a genital examination was
included. In this study, many of the children failed to report genital touching when they were asked for a verbal report of their examination, or they failed to show on the dolls what had
- CBCA: uses criteria to distinguish T from F, part of SVA
- Statement Validity Analysis consists of three parts: ( 1) a structured interview with the victim; (2)
a systematic analysis of the verbal content (3) application of statement validity checklist
- Step Wise Interview: series of steps, start general move more specific, developed by Yuilee
o Similar in rapport and general to modified step wise, differs in specific questions( wh)
- Narrative Elaboration:
o Catorgize into : participants, settings, actions, conversation, consequences
- Children interviewed with the narrative elaboration procedure reported more accurate
information but not more inaccurate information for the staged event compared with when just
the cue cards were presented without training or the standard interview. Also, children did not
fabricate more information with the narrative-elaboration procedure.
- Open ended questions with two kinds of prompts: time prompts (what happened next) question
prompts ( teacher belt)
- Cognitive interview more accurate than control conditions
RECALL MEMORY FOLLOWING A LONG DELAY
Lindsay and Read (1995) suggest five criteria to consider when determining the
veracity of a recovered memory:
1. Age of complainant at the time of the alleged abuse. It is unlikely that anyone would have
a memory (of abuse or otherwise) prior to age 2.
2. Techniques used to recover memory. Techniques such as