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PSYC 3020 (61)
Dan Yarmey (47)

CHAPTER 6pyschoflaw.docx

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PSYC 3020
Dan Yarmey

CHAPTER 6 HISTORY - Salem witch trials - Ceci and Bruck ( 1993) outlined four factors that led to the renewed interest - in child witnesses: o 1. Expert psychological testimony was becoming more acceptable in the courtroom. o 2. Social scientists were interested in research that could be applied to real-world problems. o 3. Studies on adult eyewitness testimony were increasing. o 4. The legal community became interested in behavioural science research regarding o child witnesses. RECALL FOR EVENTS Free Recall v. Direct Questioning - with free narrative, accuracy is comparable w adults - leading, direct questions produce a more erroneous response - direct questions w yes or no or forced response format are problematic for pre-schoolers Social Compliance: - a response believed to be desired by interviewer Changes to the cognitive system - differences in the way children and adults store, retrieve and encode - social and cognitive factors are responsible for suggestibility - When direct questions were posed, children 3 to 6 years old were more likely to use the dolls to reenact what occurred than to report verbally. In contrast, 7 to 12 year olds reported more details verbally than with the dolls. Younger children were more likely to play with the dolls in a suggestive manner and to contradict details that were reported verbally. Overall, both younger and older children reported proportionally more "fantastic" details with the dolls than without. - Contrary to the above results, Goodman, Quas, Batterman-Faunce, Riddlesberger, and Kuhn (1997) found that 3- to 10-year-olds who had been touched during an examination were more likely to report such touching with dolls than when questioned orally. In another study, Saywitz, Goodman, Nicholas, and Moan (1991) interviewed 5- and 7-year-old girls who had received a physical examination. For half the girls, a genital examination was included. In this study, many of the children failed to report genital touching when they were asked for a verbal report of their examination, or they failed to show on the dolls what had actually happened. OTHER TECHNIQUES - CBCA: uses criteria to distinguish T from F, part of SVA - Statement Validity Analysis consists of three parts: ( 1) a structured interview with the victim; (2) a systematic analysis of the verbal content (3) application of statement validity checklist - Step Wise Interview: series of steps, start general move more specific, developed by Yuilee o Similar in rapport and general to modified step wise, differs in specific questions( wh) - Narrative Elaboration: o Catorgize into : participants, settings, actions, conversation, consequences - Children interviewed with the narrative elaboration procedure reported more accurate information but not more inaccurate information for the staged event compared with when just the cue cards were presented without training or the standard interview. Also, children did not fabricate more information with the narrative-elaboration procedure. NICHD Protocol - Open ended questions with two kinds of prompts: time prompts (what happened next) question prompts ( teacher belt) - Cognitive interview more accurate than control conditions RECALL MEMORY FOLLOWING A LONG DELAY Lindsay and Read (1995) suggest five criteria to consider when determining the veracity of a recovered memory: 1. Age of complainant at the time of the alleged abuse. It is unlikely that anyone would have a memory (of abuse or otherwise) prior to age 2. 2. Techniques used to recover memory. Techniques such as
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