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Lecture 16

Outline Lecture 16 Parenting 2.odt

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3100
Pat Barclay

Outline Lecture 16 Parenting 2 1. Discriminative Parental Care – The basic logic: invest parental investment optimally & avoid wasting it – parental investment is costly! -prediction: parental love should have evolved to allocate parental resources optimally -types of discrimination: Quality: will this offspring make it? Need: how much would this offspring benefit from P.I? Age: are they almost at a “safe” age? Identity: is this baby mine? 2. Some Bases for Discriminating - Phenotypic quality: can this offspring convert parental investment into parental fitness gains? - Need: how much difference will this investment make? – Age: how close to independence is this child? – Identity: is the kid really mine? (e.g., paternal uncertainty) when will organisms recognize own young? Razorbill does not recognize own eggs/young, will feed offspring in nest -nest in cliffs: far apart nests. Unlikely mix-ups of young Guillemot recognizes own offspring, rejects unrelated offspring -nest in colonies: mix-ups possible of young -recognizes individual offspring to target parental investment general point: some species use individual recognition cues for DPS, others use different cues that are just as effective in species' natural environment 3. Cinderella Effect: treating genetic children better than step-children – Introduction, evidence in mistreatment rates, + cross-cultural ubiquity – could be because step-parents' abuse is more likely to be reported – homicide per million co-residing parent-child dyads (much higher in step-parent) – Generalization to other forms of discrimination – cross cultural: big difference in child homicide rates by step vs. Genetic parents in Australia, Britain, Canada, USA – big differences in nonlethal abuse in studies inAustralia, Britain, Canada, Columbia, Finland, etc. – Big difference in child mortality rates inAche hunter-gatherers – Strong parental sentiments vs. Those of surrogate parents – prediction: more positive behaviour & less negative behaviour from a biological parents than from a surrogate (all else equal) – cinderella story: mistreated step child in many cultures. Inhibition to mistreat your child because of parental mechanisms. – Abuse as a “negative assay” – per 1000 children with genetic parents, and one genetic and one step-parent – abuse much higher in families with one step-parent, especially for young children (age of 0-2 highest, 3-5 also high) – Eliminating alternative explanations for the effect – SES/poverty
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