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Lecture 7

Lecture 7.rtf

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PSYC 3100
Pat Barclay

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Lecture 7 - Kin Recognition: Cues to Kinship why learn to discriminate Kin? -target altruism towards them -avoid harming them too much (or too often) -avoid mating with close kin (likely to carry deleterious recessive genes: really bad for you if you get two of the same deleterious genes. how? -cues tap into some kinship estimator, gives us a kinship index. -kinship index monitors and downgrades sexual attraction towards close kin -regulates altruistic behaviour -potential proximate mechanisms: aversion and/or complete sexual non-attraction, genuine concern for their well-being Cues of Kinship -situational predictors (e.g, who did i grow up with?) -phenotype matching to self or other relatives? -visual recognition, resemblance? -odor? : can recognize mothers odor -behavioural similarity (gesture, personality quirks?) : similarity in siblings -other sensory modalities (e.g. voice) : learn voice -nominal cues : last names Early Childhood Association -statistical predictor of siblinghood (in many species with parental care) -proposed by Westermarck (1891) as mechanism for incest avoidance: people are not sexually attracted to those whom they grow up with from childhood -contrast to other views that incest is only prevented by taboos aside: evade. that taboos not wholly responsible for incest avoidance: -non-human animals also avoid mating with siblings -cultures with explicit taboos aside: parent/offspring and sibling mating is particularly detrimental, cousins not so much Predictions of the Westermarck Hypothesis -childrens raised together will be averse to mating with each other as adults - even if they are actually unrelated -sub-prediction: if forced together, such unions have: -lower fertility -more affairs -more divorces -sexual intercourse among actual siblings will be negatively associated with association during childhood -children growing up with opposite-sex children will show greater moral aversion to incest than those not so raised Unrelated Children Together: Israel Kibbutzim -communal settlements in Israel, religious or secular -children raised communally with age-mates -sexual interaction between age-mates is not discouraged, perhaps even encouraged -in data from 2769 couples from over 200 kibbutz, not a single couple was raised together from ages 0-6 -no evidence of sexual intercourse either -not treating age mates as potential mates (great warmth, not sexual) Sim-pua Marriages -100 years ago in Taiwan, two forms of arranged marriages were common 1. Major marriage: the grooms parents (avg. age 3) paid a brideprice to bride's parents (avg. age 19), big formal ceremony welcoming bride into groom's family 2. Minor marriage (sim-pua): the bride was "adopted" in infancy by the groom's parents. Formal marriage ceremony occurred when the girl was about 17 years old -sexual attraction may not be there. -minor marriages more likely to end in divorce (when raised together as siblings, more likely to end in divorce) -more likely to end when the husband was a younger age when the bride was adopted (more childhood time spent together, more likely to divorce) -despite social pressure to have babies -people express distaste for minor marriages -fewer offspring in minor marriages than major marriages -more husbands (48%) visiting "dark rooms" (brothels) in minor marriages. far fewer in major marriages (14%) -more husbands (32%) living with a concubine (second woman in house) in minor marriages. much less (4.3%) in major marriages -more women (33%) involved in adultery in minor marriages. much less (11.3%) in major marriages -shows that when they are raised together, more likely to get divorced, have less kids, and commit adultery. Alternate Explanations? -family income -social status of the marriage third type of marriage: uxorilocal marriages: men move to their wifes' household. considered lower status. these men are gen
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