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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 Kinship Detection.doc

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3100
Pat Barclay

Outline Lecture 7 Kinship Detection − We are not born knowing who our kin our - we have to figure that out − Why do we discriminate against kin? o Target altruism towards them o Avoid harming them too much o Avoid mating with close kin  Can cause defects  We are less "attracted" to people who are our kin − We must learn who our kin are − Plants - complete less when growing next to kin − Potential proximate mechanisms: aversion and/or complete sexual non-attraction, genuine their concern for well being 1. One proposed mechanism on how we integrate cues to learn who kin are (Lieberman et al) 2. Cues of kinship: Situational predictors − Statistical predictors of siblinghood − If we were born in the same house it is likely that we are siblings − It was suggested by Westermarck (1891) that we are not sexually attracted to those whom they grow up with from childhood o Evidence that taboos not wholly responsible for incest avoidance  Non-human animals • Even non-animals avoid incest - even without taboo • It is likely we use the same mechanisms that other mammals use, maybe we use some of those too  Cultures without explicit taboos - Early childhood association & the Westermarck hypothesis − We can predict that children raised together will be averse to mating with each other as adults - even if they are actually UNRELATED − Sub-prediction: if forced together such unions will have: o Lower fertility o More affairs o More divorce − Sexual intercourse among actual siblings will be negatively association during childhood − Children growing up with opposite-sex children will show greaters moral aversion to incest than those not so raised • Evidence: Unrelated children raised together – Israeli kibbutzim, Taiwanese sim-pua marriages (minor marriages) • Kibbuts o Communal settlements, religious or secular o Children raised communally with age-mates o Sexual interaction between age-mats is not discouraged, perhaps even encouraged in data fromm 2769 couples from 211 kibbutz, not a single couple were ag-mates (no evidence sexual intercourse either) • Sim-Pua o 100 years ago there were types of arranged marriages:  Major marriage • Big formal ceremony welcoming the bride into grooms family  Sim-pua or minor marriage • Born into family and basically adopted by family. They grow up together "raised as siblings" - formal marriage occurs at about 17 years of age o Minor marriages were more common that major marriages o We can also see that the divporce rates are higher when the "wife" is adopted earlier than later (at age 0-3 oppose to 10-13) o There are also fewer offspring in minor marriages than in major marriages • Affairs in Sim-Pua marriages o % of Husbands visiting "dark rooms" Major - 14.3, Minor - 47.8 o % of husbans living with concubines Major - 4.3, Minor 32.0 o % of women involved in adultery Major - 11.3 Minor 33.1 • Alternative explanations o Family income  Can look at this by a third type of marriage  Uxorilocal marriage (means - lives with wifes family - considered low status) • Men are generally older • Less preferred but better than being celibate • Cannot be said its due to low income - because uxorilocal are having just as many kids as the Major marriages o Social status of the marriage o Conflict with in-laws  Conflict is less because in Minor- wife is comfortable with the family o Health of adopted daughters-in-laws  No - because they are fine when they marry someone other than their "brother like" husband o NONE O
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