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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Introducing Health Psych.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3110
Professor
Kieran O' Doherty
Semester
Fall

Description
09/09/2013 Psyc*3110 Topics ▯in▯HEALTH▯PSYCHOLOGY Lecture▯2:▯Introducing▯Health▯ Psychology Dr▯Kieran▯O’’Doherty 3014▯MacKinnon▯Extension▯(3 floor) Office▯hours:▯Tuesday▯,10am▯––noon ▯ 519Ͳ824Ͳ4120▯▯x58919 [email protected] Lecture▯Outline • What▯is▯health? – Biomedical▯model – Biopsychosocial model • What▯is▯health▯psychology? – Different▯approaches▯to▯health▯psychology What▯is▯Health? • How▯would▯I▯recognise ‘‘health’’▯if▯I▯saw▯it?▯ • How▯would▯I▯know▯if▯I▯lost▯it? • What▯might▯be▯the▯reasons▯for▯having▯it▯or▯not▯ having▯it? 1 09/09/2013 Historical▯Perspectives▯of▯▯Health▯and▯ Illness • Ancient▯Greece▯––health ▯and▯illness▯viewed▯in▯ terms▯of▯bodily▯functioning▯(rather▯than▯evil▯ spirits) • Hippocrates▯(c.▯460Ͳ377) – Illness▯occurs▯in▯body,▯independent▯of▯mind – Four▯humours:▯blood,▯black▯bile,▯yellow▯bile,▯phlegm • Galen▯(second▯century) – Disease▯occurs▯in▯specific▯parts▯of▯body;▯different▯ diseases▯have▯different▯effects▯on▯body Historical▯Perspectives▯Ͳ Christendom th • Collapse▯of▯Roman▯empire,▯5 cent. • Return▯to▯view▯of▯illness▯as▯result▯of▯spirits,▯demons,▯ or▯punishment▯of▯god • Authority▯of▯physical▯healers▯replaced▯by▯priests • Treatment▯sinfluenced▯by▯ religious▯doctrine • Because▯people▯&▯animals▯ seen▯as▯possessing▯souls,▯ body▯sacrosanct▯and▯ dissection▯forbidden Historical▯Perspectives▯Ͳ Renaissance • ‘‘rebirth’’▯of▯inquiry▯in▯ Europe▯&▯scientific▯ revolution • René▯Descartes▯(1596–– 1650):▯new▯model▯of▯ mind/body▯relationship • Separate▯substances,▯but▯interact▯through▯pineal▯gland • Notion▯that▯animals▯have▯no▯souls;▯human▯soul▯leaves▯body▯ at▯death▯……▯implications▯for▯science 2 09/09/2013 The▯MindͲBody▯Problem •What▯is▯▯the▯relationship▯between▯ the▯physical▯body▯and▯the▯nonͲ material▯mind? •Descartes:▯MindͲBody▯Dualism •Dualism •Monism: •Materialism •Idealism▯ Biomedicine▯&▯the▯Biomedical▯Model▯ • Gained▯dominance▯in▯last▯200Ͳ300▯years – Body▯is▯separate▯from▯psychological▯and▯social▯processes▯of▯ the▯mind – All▯disease▯can▯be▯explained▯by▯disturbances▯in▯ physiological▯processes▯(injury,▯infection,▯etc.) – Health▯seen▯as▯biochemical▯or▯physical▯in▯nature • Stimulated▯progress▯in▯research – Identifying▯pathogens▯causing▯disease – Development▯of▯physical▯treatments▯(medication,▯vaccines,▯ surgical▯procedures) • Advances▯in▯physical▯techniques▯continues▯today▯at▯ astonishing▯rate Criticisms▯of▯Biomedical▯Model • Reductionist▯(ignores▯complexity▯of▯factors▯ involved▯in▯health) • Mechanistic▯(assumes▯that▯every▯disease▯has▯ primary▯biological▯cause) • Dualistic▯(neglects▯social▯and▯psychological▯ aspects▯of▯individual) • Disease▯oriented▯(emphasis▯on▯illness▯over▯ health) 3 09/09/2013 The▯Biopsychosocial Model • Health▯&▯illness▯arise▯from▯interplay▯of▯factors:▯ – Biological – Psychological/behavioural – Social • Factors▯interact▯in▯determining: – Onset▯of▯disease – Progression – Recovery▯ Biopsychosocial Factors Biological • Viruses Social • Bacteria • Class • Hormonal • Ethnicity • Cerebral▯lesions • Education • Genetic • Employment Psychological • Social▯Support • Behaviour • Beliefs • Pain • Illness▯perceptions • Cognitive▯illusions • Stress Criticisms▯of▯the▯ Biopsychosocial Model • Not▯a▯real▯model • Reaction▯against – Psychoanalysis▯ – Behaviourism • Not▯examined▯and▯discussed▯as▯an▯explicit▯theory • Responses: • Way▯of▯thinking▯about▯health▯and▯illness▯to▯justify▯particular▯ research▯and▯practice • Guiding▯framework,▯allowing▯health▯psychologists▯to▯forger▯ multilevel,▯multisystems approach▯to▯human▯functioning • Work▯in▯progress
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