Risk taking or organized are what is evaluated here in regards to personality. One could simply report their raw scores on the scale. E. g. on the risk taking scale, if you received a score of. Z scores: a specific case of linear transformations. A male (bill) received a score of 15 on risk taking: Bill was 1. 12 standard deviations above the mean. %50 of the population is below and the other half is above, he is higher than 84% of people. Imagine that bill (from our previous example) got a score of 15 on the organization scale . Although he received the same raw score, on organization he is only. He got both the same scores but the mean of both groups are different thus leading to a different z score. It tells you how you did relative to everyone else is the advantage of z scores over a raw score. This comparison is known as the comparative group.