*examples on personality test for risk taking and organizaion* What scores should we report back to the respondent when they take a psychological test: one could simply report their raw scores on the scale. The problem with this is that the raw score scale is completely arbitrary. What if it was a 5-point raing scale instead of t/f. Do not change the person"s score, but can express that score in units that are more informaive or interpretable than the raw score. A transformaion can take into account informaion not contained in the raw score itself. Z-scores: a speciic case of linear transformaions o. X: the resultant standardized scale is, like raw scores, also arbitrary, but comparisons can be made. Ex. can receive same raw score, but diferent z-scores on the two scales. Linear transformaion: linear transformaions do not change the shape of the distribuion, note that scores can be standardized with respect to any mean and sd.