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PSYC 3300 (23)

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PSYC 3300
Carol Anne Hendry

Week One Definitions and Terms - Sex and Gender  Sex: biological categories of female and male as determined by genes, chromosomes and hormones.  Gender: social categories of female ad male as constructed by psychological features and social role attributions. - Sex-Related behaviours versus sex differences  Sex related behaviours preferred because we already know what sex differences are (penis ns vagina) - Gender roles  Role: social position accompanied by set of norms or expectations  Gender role: Expectations that accompany being male or female. o Expect men to be strong, not show emotions, i.e., masculine o Expect women to be caring, emotionally expressive, i.e., feminine - Masculinity and femininity  Masculinity: traits, behaviours, interests assigned by society to male gender role o E.g., self-confidence, watching sports  Femininity: traits, behaviours, interests assigned to the female gender role o E.g., Emotional, helping others - Types of Role Conflicts  Intrarole Conflict: expectations within a role conflict. o E.g., women should express feelings AND be sensitive to others’ needs o Two roles that a person is supposed to have conflict  Interrole Conflict: expectations of one role conflict with expectations of another role. o E.g., expectations of leadership role conflict with expectations for gender role. o Conflict between one role and another -Gender Identity  Gender Role Identity: perception of self as psychologically male or female  Transgendered: biological sex does not match gender identity (i.e., psychological sex)  Transsexual: have undergone hormonal or surgical treatments to align biological sex to gender identity o Male-to-female transsexuals are most common o Have made the transition to their gender from their sex  Intersex: persons born with ambiguous genitalia (hermaphrodite) o Often infertile o If born with non-functional penis usually raised as girl o E.g., Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides o Novel- someone born intersex. -Gender Identity Disorder (GID)  Classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)  People who are uncomfortable with their biological sex  Controversy about whether GID should be classified as a mental disorder - Sexual Orientation  Refers to preference for other-sex or same-sex persons as romantic partners  Not synonymous with gender identity  Heterosexuals: prefer other-sex partners  Homosexuals: prefer same-sex partners  Bisexuals: Other-sex and same-sex partners - Gender Typing  Process by which sex-appropriate preferences, behaviours, skills, and self-concept are acquired  Sex-Typed: (or gender typed) individuals who adhere to gender role that society has assigned to their sex  Cross-sex Typed: males who act feminine; females who act masculine  Androgynous: individuals who incorporate both masculine and feminine qualities. - Gender Role Attitudes
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