Definitions and Terms
- Sex and Gender
Sex: biological categories of female and male as determined by genes, chromosomes and hormones.
Gender: social categories of female ad male as constructed by psychological features and social role
- Sex-Related behaviours versus sex differences
Sex related behaviours preferred because we already know what sex differences are (penis ns vagina)
- Gender roles
Role: social position accompanied by set of norms or expectations
Gender role: Expectations that accompany being male or female.
o Expect men to be strong, not show emotions, i.e., masculine
o Expect women to be caring, emotionally expressive, i.e., feminine
- Masculinity and femininity
Masculinity: traits, behaviours, interests assigned by society to male gender role
o E.g., self-confidence, watching sports
Femininity: traits, behaviours, interests assigned to the female gender role
o E.g., Emotional, helping others
- Types of Role Conflicts
Intrarole Conflict: expectations within a role conflict.
o E.g., women should express feelings AND be sensitive to others’ needs
o Two roles that a person is supposed to have conflict
Interrole Conflict: expectations of one role conflict with expectations of another role.
o E.g., expectations of leadership role conflict with expectations for gender role.
o Conflict between one role and another
Gender Role Identity: perception of self as psychologically male or female
Transgendered: biological sex does not match gender identity (i.e., psychological sex)
Transsexual: have undergone hormonal or surgical treatments to align biological sex to gender identity
o Male-to-female transsexuals are most common
o Have made the transition to their gender from their sex
Intersex: persons born with ambiguous genitalia (hermaphrodite)
o Often infertile
o If born with non-functional penis usually raised as girl
o E.g., Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides
o Novel- someone born intersex.
-Gender Identity Disorder (GID)
Classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
People who are uncomfortable with their biological sex
Controversy about whether GID should be classified as a mental disorder
- Sexual Orientation
Refers to preference for other-sex or same-sex persons as romantic partners
Not synonymous with gender identity
Heterosexuals: prefer other-sex partners
Homosexuals: prefer same-sex partners
Bisexuals: Other-sex and same-sex partners
- Gender Typing
Process by which sex-appropriate preferences, behaviours, skills, and self-concept are acquired
Sex-Typed: (or gender typed) individuals who adhere to gender role that society has assigned to their sex
Cross-sex Typed: males who act feminine; females who act masculine
Androgynous: individuals who incorporate both masculine and feminine qualities.
- Gender Role Attitudes