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Week 9 (Mar 10 & 12 & 14).docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3300
Carol Anne Hendry

Psych 3300 – March 10 & 12 & 14 Week 9 th March 10 2014 Sex differences in Morbidity • Morbidity – refers to illness or disease • Chronic illnesses – are long lasting; can be fatal or nonfatal • women have higher morbidity rates than men, starting after adolescence o high levels of illness or disease • when asked about own health women perceive own health to be worse • Women also reports more illness behavior – behaviors that are connected to morbidity or poor health or lack of good health o Restrict activities due to illness o Seek medical care • Mobidity free years have decline – more so for women than men • Suffer more acute and more nonfatal chronic illness compared to men • At any given point in time, women more likely to be living with chronic disease Illness rates • Women and men suffer from and die of different illnesses, to some extent • Women o Strokes, diabetes, kidney, disease, breast cancer, osteoporosis, migraine headaches, physical and sexual assult • Men o Ulcers, asthma, prostate cancer, homicide and suicide, alcohol and drug abuse • Across all age groups women report more physical illness symptoms, take more medication and visit doctor more than men do Figure 9.2 0 interactions of men and wome in the US with the health care system dying 2004 • Preventative care outpairnet – females at 76% men ant 25% • Primary care (care related to morbidity) f = 62, M=38% • Hospital outpatient – f = 61 m= 39% Do you think men and women have different pain tolerance? • With age, all human beings have greater pain tolerance • On average, it increases more with men slightly more than women’s • Women more sensitive touch and tactile – which doesn’t speak of pain tolerance but we may have more stimulation from the same source • Might be some socio-cultural facters – there may be a more masculine identity with pain tolerance Sex differences in mortality • Moratlity – refers to the death rate • life span o men die younger than women throughout life span Psych 3300 – March 10 & 12 & 14 Week 9 o males have high death rates than females at all ages o males more likely suffer injury or death prenatal or perinatal period  more susceptible to number of illnesses because none match pair (xy) o men are riskier than women so that may be increase in death rate o women tend to live longer than men, especially in developed countries o pregnancy/ childbirth significant causes of death for women in developing countries not not in developed countries o sex gap mortality narrowed in recent years  but does sex gap varies by race and country Life expectancy • 1900 around 46 • 2006-between 75-80 • The increase sex difference was due to the reduction in women’s morality during childbirth and the increase in men’s morality from heart disease and lung cacner Estimates of 2010 life expectancies around the world • There are places in world were life expectancies that are much much lover like 48 in zimbabawe • Health care, conflict (war, violence), shelter, clean water • France has highest life expectancy Leading causes of death • Heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease (storke), chronic lower respiratory disease, and accidents • Lifestyle factors play a role in all of these causes – more common now than communicable disease • Men more likely than women to die of most of the leading causes of death except for alzheimers • Men more likely to commit violent crimes and be victims of violent crimes, including homicide • Women more likely than men o killed by someone they know o Like domestic violence is huge factor in this • Leading cause of death for white men and women, and black woem in ages 15-24 is accidents Table 10.4 – Age adjusted death rates (per 100,000) for the leading causes of death • Heart disease top, homicide least o Homicide male to female ratio is 4:1 Crime statistics • Men more likely to commit and be victims of violent crime • Done more by people you know rather than strangers Psych 3300 – March 10 & 12 & 14 Week 9 • Women more done by people they know than men Six classes of explanation in differences 1. Biology • Genes o second x chromosome may protect women from some genetically based disease • Hormones o Complicated: estrogen contributes to women’s greater resistance and vulnerability to disease o Some cases estrogen seen to help buffer against disease o Some oral contraceptives can guard against breast cancer, but it can provide higher risk factors for stroke and other disease o Estrogen may help women against heart disease- so after menopause, women’s rates of heart disease increase dramatically • Immune system o Paradoxical: women have better immune system response to infection than men but also more vulnerable to autoimmune disease o Because we have very specific function – because we carry new life so we should be more protective of body because at parts of our life we are more vulnerable to infection • Cardivascular reactivity o Historically, men showed more cardiovascular reactivity to stressful tasks; thought to explain men’s greater vulnerability to heart disease o More recently, sex difference in cardiovascular reactive depend on nature of stressor - Idea: men more reactive to certain types of stress than females o Women’s and men’s reactivity similar when they feel similarly challenged or threatened so the kind of stress that is being attacked o The difficulty and how congruent it is with their gender Figure 10.1 (a) Men show elevated cortisol reactivity to an achievement stressor compared to women (b) Women show elevated cortisol reactivity to an interpersonal stressor compared to men • Cultural reasons why they are like this too • Evolutionary psychologists – men this is all about natural selection b/c willing to achieve and procreate • Biology important but not sole explanation for sex differences in life expectancy March 14 2014 • Media Assignment o Could be a blog, youtube video – as long as it is accessible to all o Analyze 3 media articles – video is also appropriate Psych 3300 – March 10 & 12 & 14 Week 9 o You will briefly discuss the main article o Critically analyze the article/ topic o And you need to find additional resources to back up your arguments o APA style of course 2. Artifacts  Means sex differences in health not real but due to confounding variables • SES o Men have high SES than women o Women’s health suffers b/c of lack of resources that comes from lack of ses compared to men, so have worse health- more in other countries than the United States o People who have higher education = women
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