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Lecture 6

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PSYC 3300
Carol Anne Hendry

Psyc 3300 – Feb 10 & 12 Week 6 Gender and Education February 10, 2014 Midterm – chapters 1-5, reading from last week, lectures from 1-5, please arrive on time with pencil /eraser School Stuff • In 2002/ 2003 there were 4,979,112 students enrolled in elementary or secondary across Canada • By time child completes secondary school the school system has provided approximately 13000 hours of supervised care • In Canada, the upper secondary graduation rate for females was 81%; the rate for males, 73% (2007) • Questions we will be discussing this week o An impersonal agency of socialization? o Hidden curriculum? o Do teachers treat boys and girls differently? Gender and school • Teachers allow boys to talk and to interrupt more than girls • Teachers tend to punish girls and boys for different kinds of behavior • A boy giving the wrong answer is more likely than a girl to be encouraged to keep trying until he gets it right o How teachers teach genders differently – not how they are differenty • Why? o Boys have harder time controlling themselves- higher tolerance than girls who typically are more self contained o Teachers may have bigger buffer for boys because boys are more crazy • Boys are called on more than girls • Boys are given more and different kind feedback than girls Psyc 3300 – Feb 10 & 12 Week 6 • Boys are allowed more leniency for mild classroom misbehavior (sadkey and sadker 1994) Gender and achievement • Achievement motive –stable personality characteristic that reflects the tendency to strive for success o Measured by people’s res[pnses tp acemes from thematic apperception test cares o Problems: more for men than women • Teachers tend to treat girls and boy differently, placing more emphasis on mastery for boys than girls o Teachers expect boys to have higher levels of achievement in some subjects • Sexual harassment in school interferes with academic achievement for a significant number of students. Particularly girls (secondary school) o Not from teachers but from classmates • In adolescence and adulthood a difference in self-esteem appears in some group o So little girls and boys do not differ in how they feel about themselves o Male adolescence and adults Tend to have high self esteem • Girls and boys develop somewhat different attitudes about cooperation and competition o By the end of highschool, as opposed to beginning– girls tend to be less about competition and more about cooperation with peers o Boys on the other hand, might indicate that they feel more competitive (not necessarily negative) feeling comfortable with competition – this might have to do with boys sports teams • Boys and girls seem to differ in their self confidence o Ask boys and girls how successful they think they’d be – boys think they will be successful more than girls – they believe they have more competence than the girls The influence of teachers • Teachers hold different beliefs about boys’ and girls’ abilities, which influence children’s beliefs about own abilities Psyc 3300 – Feb 10 & 12 Week 6 o More attention to boys than girls?  Is this discrepancy how much boys get  Because boys behavior is externalized – that there is more resources them o Teachers act as substitute parents in way – especially in early years o Messages they give are important • Nature of feedback differs between boys and girls: - what teachers say to them o Boys get a lot more negative behavioral feedback  Discount negative feedback about class work • When boys given criticism - it doesn’t seem to integrate into their identity as often o Girls get more positive behavioral feedback  Dilute positive feedback about class-work • You did really good job – well my mom helped me (that’s how they would respond) • They discount the positive they hear o Teacher expectations affect student performance Gender specific schools? • Rationale o Gender differences in the brain(well we don’t know about that actually) = gender differences in learning style o Process failure differently (Sax, 2004)  Males and females process failure differently  Girls will generalize failure – disappointed – therefore, they will have less worth – we see ourselves becomes direct of value we are  Boys see their failures as very specific to subject area to which they are in – they see that as failure in male geography and doesn’t have to do with self worth  This may be because on average they have less desire to please adults as girls do • Perceived benefits: o **missing** • Challenges o Preparation for “real-world” – you work with opposite sex in real world o Respect for opposite sex?- learn to respect opposite sex need to learn to talk to them girst o Variation within gender – not all girls or boys learn the same way  There are more difference within same gender – there are between February 12, 2014 The influence of parents • Parents influence children’s expectancies / values Psyc 3300 – Feb 10 & 12 Week 6 • Parents often hold stereotyped views of boys and girls’ ability  self-fulfilling stereotypes • Sex- differentiated beliefs about math, reading hold even when the students grades similar o Parents hold stereotypes about the gender of their child and how they will succeed – it is in terms of beliefs not actual performance • Parents’ stereotypes lead to different attributions for girls’ and boys’ school success/ failure • Parents’ beliefs about children’s abilities can influence chidlren’s own self -percetions ** A model describing how parents’ beliefs can influence children’s performance.. • Get from slide • How parents view child – parents’ emotional reactions (if react more to girl than boy show bigger deal, interest, time with children, praise, direct advice about pursuits  children’s competence • If you think you can do it will increase ability – and achievement Current status of women’s and men’s achievement • By early 1990s, more women than men attend college/ university • However, women and men pursue different field • Fewer women than men major in Stem fields • Women more in life sciences, men more in physical sciences The achievement motive • Refers to a stable personality trait that reflects the tendency to strive for success (McClellan) • Early work: do women have a lower need for achievement? Fear success? o Because women were primary care givers and had satisfaction there and had lower need for achievement out of home o None of these things really panned out • Still concern among some women that achievement has social costs o Tina fey – said “I hate how I get asked how I balance everything” – we don’t ask men that question o There is sometimes a social cost of achievement – fatigue o Men have been getting more involved- and they are getting more burnt out too o We end up with people who are fatigued Fear of achievement • Historically, explanation centered on fear of success • Fear of success – as the association of negative consequences with achievement • FOS: high achievement has negative consequences (e.g. for women, feel unfeminine, social rejection) o Typically high achieving women is masculine o Evil villain is mean Psyc 3300 – Feb 10 & 12 Week 6 • Evidence controversial o Early projective tests not valid measures of FoS o Self report measures show higher FoS for females – but we really think that is product of cultural norms • Why women leave traditionally masculine fields o Fear of success of concerns about flexibility, time demands, lack of intrinsic interest in fields  It was more about the limitations imposed – because they choose to have family and children and even if not primary care giver you still need to have flexibility  Its not fear of achievement it is what comes along with high achieving jobs • Contemporary literature o Early adolescent girls may associate success with negative consequences o Girls often hide their successes o Achievement in math and science predicted increase in social self image (feeling accepted by others) for boys only o Girls had good social image if received b’s not c’s or A’s Leaving traditionally masculine pursits • Females change their minds of what they want to be over the course of 6 years • Three things prominent of why switched 1. Women desired job with geater flexibility 2. Women were unhappy with the high demands of jobs in traditionally masculine fields 3. Women had low intrinsic interest In the value of physical sciences Self confidence • Influenced by the nature of the task o Women are less self confident than men about their performance on masculine tasks such as STEM fields despite equal performance nd • Study – image on slide – there was no sex difference in math self-confidence among 2 and 3 graders. However, maong 4 and 5 graders, boys were more confident than girls (it was significant) • Sex difference in self confidence mostly in masculine tasks o Women underestimate their performance and lack self-confidence in masculine domains • Lack of self-confidence could contribute to underrepresentation of women in math, science • Women may appear less confident even if not o Women reluctant to threaten others self-esteem o More competitive aspects – men more aware of competition and women are more aware of cooperation Psyc 3300 – Feb 10 & 12 Week 6 • To the extent it exists, sex difference in direction of women under confident, men overconfident • The appearance of low self confidence o It is possible that women only appear less self confident than men – because do not want to act superior o Problem is behaving this way can actually change their attitude Response to evaluation feedback • Women are more responsive to evaluative feedback than men and use it to make inferences about their abilities o Women evaluated their speech as more positive after receiving positive feedback and more negative after receiving negative feedback – men’s evaluations for their speech were relatively unaffected by nature of feedback they received • One reason women more responsive: view information as accurate and informative of their abilities • Men may discount negative evaluative feedback in order to protect self-esteem • Feedback from supervisor – drastically affected females didn’t change males Self esteem • Small sex difference in self-esteem; men higher • Age moderates sex differences in self-esteem o Both boys and girls self esteem decreased during early adolescence but that boys’ self-esteem rebounds and shows a large increase during high school compared to girls o Largest among adolescents o Body image contributes  Persists into adulthood • Agency and communion more closely related to self-esteem than sex per se • Self esteem emerge in 8 grade • Ethnic differences in self esteem- white girls higher than black girls • Reasons for self esteem differences o Girls more likely want to be boys than boys want to be girls (more negative for them) o Caucasian girls in particular care more about popularity Stereotype threat • Stereotype threat- suggests that the salience of these kinds of stereotype may have negative impact on women’s performance • Visual spatial kills test o Women did poorer when stereotype was explicit o Only when it was nullified they did the same • Being aware of the threat can nullify it – when told that the threat could decrease their performance, they did the same as the men Psyc 3300 – Feb 10 & 12 Week 6 Conceptions of the self • Behavioral sex differences may reflect different ways men and women define themselves • Independent self-construal: sense of self separate from others; feel unique • Interdependent self construal: sense of self in which others are integrated into the self; feel connected o One problem with suggesting that women have more interpdepentn senf of self compared to men has to do with the way interdependence is conceptualized- there are two kinds: o Relational interdependence: women (close relationships with others) o Collective interdependence: men (group membership and affiliations) • Women tend to orient smaller groups, men broader • • Ethnic, cultural factors influence sex differences in sex- construal • Also gender similarities in sources of self esteem Attributions for performance • Self serving bias: tendency to take credit for our successes and blame other people for things for our failures o sex by age interaction • Dimensions of causality o Attribution: Cause we assign to a behavior  Internal- within a person  External- within the environment  Stable- does not change across time or situations  Unstable –that does change across time and situations o Sex differences: Expectancy model of attributions Internal External Stable Ability Task Difficulty Unstable Effort Luck Psyc 3300 – Feb 10 & 12 Week 6 • Model shows that when performance fits our expectations we attribute the cause to stable factors. When performance does not fit our expectations we attribute cause to unstable factors Implications of attributions for achievement • Sex differences in how success/ failure explained o Men’s success: stable, internal o Women’s success: unstable, internal o Men’s failure: external or internal, unstable o Women’s failure: internal, stable • Implications: men’s success will be repeated as will women’s failure • Implications for future efforts in an area • Boys are more likely than girls to attribute math success to ability, and girls more likely than boys attribute math failure to lack of ability Explanation: social Factors Expectancy / value model of achievement • Model suggests that achievement- related choices are function of performance expectancies and values • People pursue areas of achievement in which they expect to succeed • Sex differences in expectancies for success even when abilities equal Psyc 3300 – Feb 10 & 12 Week 6 • In career choice, males value status and money, STEM jobs; females value people- orientation and contributions to society • Performance expenctancies and values are influenced by gender-role socialization • It is the self perception of ability rather than the actual ability that predicts whether sutdnets pursue given domain
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