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Behavioral Neuroscience Notes March 5th Lecture .docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3390
Meghan Mc Murtry

Behavioral Neuroscience Notes – March 5 Lecture Sleep Disorders Insomnia: - Iattrogenic (means doctor) - Sleep Apnea: obstructive(when its found in the periphery) or central (central origin of the brain?) o Most common in males, overweight, elderly. o The person is unaware of it - Noctornal Myoclonus (periodic limbic movement disorders): multiple awakenings due to twitching of the body, ususally legs. Twitches are normal but if they happen excessively then becomes a problem - Restless legs: trouble falling asleep because of tension in legs. o Feel the urge to move their legs o Dopamine has an effect Hypersomnia Narcolepsy: - Sudden daytime sleep attacks while engaging in other activities (even sex) – can have very vivid dreams - Cataplexy: loss of muscle tone while awake - Sleep Paralysis: inability to move when falling asleep or waking up (related to loss of muscle tone) – feel a pressure on their chest, can cause difficulty breathing. (can happen to people who don’t have narcolepsy) - Hypnagogic Hallucinations : dreamlike experiences during wakefulness Narcolepsy Genetic Component - There is a genetic component - Dog video: they area awake but they cannot move - Nucleus Magnuscellularis o Loss of core muscle tone - Narcoleptic Dogs  mutant gene for orexin (hypocretin). Also found in knockout mice  the mice also showed these narcoleptic attacks like the dogs. Narcolepsy Drugs - Old Fashioned stimulants o (eg. Amphetamines, methylphentidate) - Novel Stimulants - ?? Narcolepsy: REM sleep in initial Stage 1 of sleep - Lack of REM sleep : very rare; no major effects - Lack of REM- sleep atonia (loss of muscle tone) o May act out in dreams  injury o Sleep paralysis (cataplexy) is adaptive o Lesions in nucleus magnocellularis CHAPTER 15: Drug Addiction and the Brains Reward Circuits Drug Addiction : The Problem - Legal drugs (nicotine, alcohol): 60million - Illegal drugs: 5.5 milllion - Prescription drugs: several million Psychoactive Drugs: Drugs that influence subjective experience and behavior by acting on the nervous system Basic Principles of Drug Addiciton - Administration o Oral o Intragastric (infused in stomach) o Transdermal (patches and implants) o Injections  Subcutaneously (under the skin)  Intramuscular (into large muscle  Intravenously (into veins)  Intrathecal (in the subarachnoid space)
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