Abnormal Psychology Slide – Jody
- The boy who fainted at the sight of blood
- 16 year old adolescent – submitted for anxiety
- Watched a bio video on frog dissection – images bugged him and made him queezy
- He therefore avoided blood all together (band aids, come video games, classes)
- He wanted to avoid the fear and stimuli
- Any blood stuff he would faint. Even if a friend said “Cut it out” he would feel faint
- By the time he was admitted he was fainting 5 to 6 times a week.
- Principal finally suspended him because she thought he was being disruptive and doing it on
- Jody is diagnosed with a phobia : Blood, injury, and injection phobia
Difference between a phobia and a fear – a phobia is debilitating to your life and affects your everyday
live. We can fear things but doesn’t mean it affects us in everyday life.
Needle fears are common in adults (jess). This can be dangerous for our health if we need blood taken
or injections for people with illnesses. (Ex. diabetes needing to take insulin)
What is Normal and What is Abnormal:
- Issues which are better captured on a continuum.
- Whether it is normal or abnormal is the most difficult part of diagnoses.
- Psychological dysfunction
- Causes distress or impairment
- Not typical responses
Main components of Abnormal Behavior
- Dysfunction (breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning) Ex. Hallucinations,
inability to control ones emotions, unable to follow through a daily routine.
- Distress (Ex. Jody was very distressed by his blood phobia, but prof is not distressed by her fear
of spiders) : Distress on its own can be very problematic at high intensity and over a long period
of time. But if it is over a short period of time and not very reoccurring then it does not cause a
problem. Having feeling of control or not. Ex. If a parent dies you will experience distress (in fact
of you don’t experience this is may be considered abnormal).
- Impairment (difficulty performing appropriate and expected roles) Ex. As adults we are expected
to go to school or work and have some sort of social life. Can u do what you are needed and
expected to do.
- Atypical or Unexpected Cultural Response (Reaction is outside social cultural norms) BUT it is
very important to take into account cultural responses. May be considered normal in some
cultures? - Not everyone can be average, and we will have extremes in behavior. Ex. Lady Gaga is an artist
who has very extreme behavior. Ex. Mel Gibson a few years ago crossed some lines?
3 Major Criteria for defining Psychological Disorder
- Psychological dysfunction
- Distress or impairment
- Atypical response
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM – IV)
- Widely accepted system for classifying psychological problems and disorders
- It enables communication between psychologists
- DSM contains diagnostic criteria’s for behaviors that fit
o Fit a pattern
o Cause dysfunction or subjective stress
o Are present for a specified ******************
Psychopathology and Mental Health Professionals
- Definition: “scientific study or psychological disorders
- Many types of mental health professionals
- What is a clinical psychologist
o Regulation in Ontario; Psychologist; diagnosis as a controlled act
o Only certain professionals can diagnose, psychologists being one of them
Dimensions of A Scientist Practitioner
- Consumer of Science
o Enhancing the practice
- Evaluator of Science
o Determining the effectiveness of the practice
- Creator of science
o Conducting research that leads to new procedures useful in practice
- A lot of scientist practitioners cover more than one of these topics Ex. prof is 40% teaching 40%
research and 20% community help
What are Major Themes in this Research?
- Studying Psychological Disorders: Focus
- Begins with the presenting problem Ex. Why is the client coming to see you