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Lecture 3

PSYC 3390 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Hermann Rorschach, Thematic Apperception Test

4 pages32 viewsFall 2012

Course Code
PSYC 3390
Mary Manson

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Unit 3 Summary (Part 2) p. 102-110, 114-138, 139-146
p. 102-110
Sociocultural Viewpoint
20th century sociology and anthropology are recognized as separate disciplines and working towards understanding
sociocultural factors regarding human development and behaviour
There is a relationship between sociocultural factors and psychological disorders these discoveries have aided in modern
perspectives of abnormal behaviour
Sociocultural viewpoint -> concerned with impact of culture and other features of the social environment on psychological
o These relationships are complex
o Studied mainly through cross-cultural studies
Cross cultural research enhances knowledge about a range of variation in human behavioural and emotional development; it also
generates ideas about what causes normal and abnormal behaviours that can later be tested in laboratories
Research supports that many psychological disturbances in children and adults are universal
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMIP-2) is the best validated and most widely used test that has been
adapted for use in many cultures, and has been used to identify many forms of psychopathology that occur across all cultures (i.e.
Nonetheless, although some universal symptoms appear, they are influenced by sociocultural factors such as which disorders
develop, the forms they take, how prevalent they are, and their course
o i.e. although anxiety disorders occur everywhere, the World Health Organization did a study which showed the
prevalence among many different countries they varied greatly
o As well, key symptoms in one country/region for a particular disorder might not be the same in another country/region
There are also marked difference in over- and under-controlled behaviour across countries
o Chinese are intolerant of undercontrolled behaviours in their children (aggression, disobedience, disrespect, etc.)
whereas North Americans have a higher tolerance
Raises the question: would overcontrolled behaviours (shyness, anxiety, depression, etc.) be higher in China as
compared to North America?
Cultural differences in psychopathology may also relate to parent-child attachment relationships
Sociocultural Causal Factors
Sociocultural groups are formed from thousands of years of social evolution as each generation is taught the same things, the
members all seem to be somewhat alike; the more uniform the teachings, the more similar the members
Subgroups of general sociocultural environments (such as family, gender, age, etc.) foster beliefs and norms of their own largely
by social roles they learn to adopt
When social roles are unclear, conflicting, or difficult to achieve, healthy personality development may be impaired
There are many sources of pathogenic social influences:
o Low socioeconomic status and unemployment
In our society, the lower the SES class, the higher the incidence of mental disorders
Strength of this inverse correlation varies depending on the mental disorder antisocial personality disorder
has a high negative correlation with SES as compared to depressive disorders which are only mildly related
Why? Some people with mental disorders “slide down the economic ladder and stay there” because they do not
have the personal resources to climb back up, or due to stigma and prejudice
People who live in poverty also encounter more (and more severe) stressors in their lives
More affluent people are better able to get help or hide their problems
Children from low SES families tend to have more problems (correlation between SES and IQ, mental distress,
higher risk taking and affiliating with deviant peers, and aggressiveness)
Unemployment is associated with higher rates of psychopathology and vulnerability, as well as higher rates of
depression, marital problems, and somatic complaints (spouses are also adversely affected)
o Prejudice and discrimination in race, ethnicity, and gender
Perceived discrimination can lower levels of well-being, autonomy and self-acceptance as well as increase
prevalence of psychological disorders (stressor)
Two main types of discrimination against women:
Access discrimination: women are not hired because of gender
Treatment discrimination: women have jobs and are paid less, treated more poorly, and receive fewer
opportunities for promotion
Women also experience sexual harassment in the workplace
o Violence
There are vast numbers of violence worldwide, especially against women and children
There is an increased toll on medical care, lost productivity, and increased rates of anxiety, depression,
posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidality
o Homelessness
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